Posted by: erienkoma | May 18, 2011

ENGLISH CURRICULUM FOR VOCATIONAL SCHOOL TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY GROUP AT 10ST GRADE STUDENTS

Abstract
The curriculum is the set of subjects provided by an education provider institution which contains the design lessons that will be given to participants of lessons in one period of education. Preparation of the subjects was adjusted to the circumstances and the ability of each level of education in educational administration.
In this paper the author presents the writing about the curriculum for vocational schools on technology and industry programs. The content of a curriculum is usually appropriated to the purposes and an objective of the educational system is implemented, such as, at this explaining curriculum for vocational school, technology and industry group, so that it can direct the educational curriculum towards the intended direction and purpose in learning activities as a whole.
Key words: curriculum, vocational school, technology and industry, and
education.

INTRODUCTION

Community needs for education in senior high school level is practical and ready to use much needed these days, it is not without reason, but because of the urgent needs of the community will be income in the family, and also the high cost of education at advanced level. While on business and industry as one of the stakeholders of the education world, the urgency of the need for personnel with expertise intermediate level skills are ready to use no longer inevitable.
Starting from these developments, the authors are very interested in writing a paper about the curriculum of the English language that is destined for students of vocational high schools (SMK) and industrial technology programs, where the curriculum was emphasized how the use of various aspects of the English language, adjusted for field-related work business and industry.

NEED ANALYSIS

In simplest terms, a needs analysis includes all the activities used to collect information about your students’ learning needs, wants, wishes, desires, etc… The process also sometimes involves looking at the expectations and requirements of other interested parties such as the teacher/teacher’s aid/tutor (you), administrators, financial supporters, and other people who may be impacted by the program (such as students’ family members or employers). A needs analysis can be very formal, extensive and time consuming, or it can be informal, narrowly focused and quick. Some of resources for conducting a needs analysis may include surveys and questionnaires, test scores, and interviews.
The information gleaned from a need analysis can be used to help you define program goals. These goals can then be stated as specific teaching objectives, which in turn will function as the foundation on which to develop lesson plans, materials, tests, assignments and activities. Basically, a needs analysis will help you to clarify the purposes of your language program.
How a needs analysis is completed will depend on the situation, who is doing it, why it is being done, etc… For example, in the first class I ever taught as a student teacher, my team-teacher and I really wanted to customize our instruction. We wanted our students to feel like we valued their input and opinions. We wanted them to see that we would implement suggestions that they gave us so that they would feel that this was really their class.
We put together a survey and a questionnaire to give our students on the first day as a sort of informal needs analysis that we could then use to help develop our lessons. We handed them out, and immediately panicked when we realized our students couldn’t understand a lick of what we had just given them and that half of our first day’s lesson was shot.
We ended up quickly sketching a mouth, an ear, a pencil, and an open book. By using our simple drawings and gestures we were able to get our students to raise their hands for the skill that was most important to them. After most of our students raised their hands for the mouth (speaking) and the ear (listening) we recognized that our detailed questionnaire and probing survey that focused primarily on reading and writing was not the right tool for needs analysis for that class.
We learned from that initial needs analyses, and as we continued to implement needs analysis through informal assessment over the semester to tweak our lesson planning, we became more flexible and better at figuring out our students needs and how best to meet them.

GOALS
Goal is about the general statements that must be accomplished by students in order to obtain and fulfill students’ needs.
• The followings are the GOALS of vocational school:

1.1 Understanding the basic expressions in social interaction for the sake of life.
1.2 Mention things, people, characteristics, time, day, month and year.

1.3 Describe objects, people, characteristics, time, day, month and year.

1.4 Producing simple utterances enough for basic functions.
1.5 Describes a simple activity that is happening.
1.6 Understanding simple memos and menus, itineraries of public transport, and traffic signs.

1.7 Understanding the words and foreign terms and simple sentences based on the formula.
1.8 Writing a simple invitation.

OBJECTIVES
Objectives are about the learning outcomes at the end of learning process that must be accomplished by students. While teacher overcome those well, teacher is assisted to create the activities which are suitable to the students.

The followings are the OBJECTIVES of vocational school

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.1.1 Greeting when meeting and parting used properly.
1.1.2 Introducing yourself and others are demonstrated properly.
1.1.3 Various expressions of thanks and responses are used appropriately.
1.1.4 Various expressions of remorse and apology as well as responses are demonstrated appropriately.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.2.1 The names of objects and words that describe the objects associated with the color, shape, origin, size, material, quantity, and quality mentioned correctly.
1.2.2 Words that describe people associated with the profession, nationality, physical characteristics, quality, and its activity is mentioned correctly.
1.2.3 Time of the day, the names of the day, date, month, year mentioned correctly.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.3.1 Numbers (cardinal/ordinal) are used appropriately in various contexts.
1.3.2 The words strung together with the right to describe objects by color, shape, origin, size, material, quantity and quality.
1.3.3 The words strung together with the right to describe the person associated with the profession, nationality, physical characteristics, quality, and its activities.
1.3.4 The words strung together with the right to describe an event based on time (time of the day), the names of the days, months, years.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.4.1 The expression of remorse and apology as well as giving the response told appropriately.
1.4.2 The expression of sympathy and giving responses to them conveyed appropriately.
1.4.3 The expression of various feelings conveyed accurately.
1.4.4 The expression of request and giving permission expressed accurately.
1.4.5 The expression of commands and requests are used appropriately.
1.4.6 The expression offers of goods and services are used appropriately.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.5.1 Events that is happening is told exactly in accordance with the time and place of occurrence.
1.5.2 Statement by using the “‘there is / are” told exactly according to the time and place of occurrence.
1.5.3 Questions about events that are happening are told accurately.
1.5.4 Disclosure of feelings / opinions about the events going on properly submitted.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.6.1 Messages written in memo form correctly.
1.6.2 Existing memo explained properly.
1.6.3 Menu written and explained properly.
1.6.4 Signs and symbols (e.g. traffic signs) are explained correctly.
1.6.5 Various kinds of schedules (timetables) is made and properly explained.
1.6.6 Forms of adjectives and descriptions are used appropriately to compare something.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.7.1 Various expressions for the express option (preferences) are used appropriately.
1.7.2 The phrase to express the modality (type conditional) is used appropriately.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.8.1 Various expressions to express capability (capabilities) are used appropriately.

1.8.2 The phrase to ask for and give directions and location is used appropriately.

1.8.3 A number of words arranged together into sentences that contain elements of the invitation.

1.8.4 Sentences arranged together properly to form the invitation.
1.8.5 A simple invitation (e.g. birthday invitation) is written correctly.
TESTING
At the time of carrying out teaching duties, teachers sometimes do not know how far the lessons given to students can be mastered, understood, and absorbed by students, then to know that teachers need to make a measurement or evaluation related to the above, for example through way, assessment, or test. Testing is a natural next step in the process of curriculum design. A test is a method of measuring a person’s ability, knowledge, or performance in a given domain (Brown, 2004, 3), Calderon & Gonzales (2007:7) defines test as a type of measuring instrument whose general characteristic is that it forces responses from a pupil and such responses are considered to be indicative of the pupil’s skill, knowledge, attitude, etc. (Bradfield and Moredock, p 44).
Before conducting test, there are a number of subjects the teacher need to be sure of; (1) the variations of the test; (2) the purpose of the test; (3) the objectives of the test; (4) the test specification; and (5) the arrangement of the selected test items.
There are at least three kinds of test; Based on its method, purpose, the nature of the answer, and alternative in assessment.
(1) Based on its Method, Language tests are different from each other in one
or the other way. Test, according to McNamara (2000), can be differentiated with respect to two kinds; method and purpose.
In terms of method, there are two kinds of tests as follow: (a) Traditional paper-and-pencil language tests. Paper-and-pencil test take the form of the familiar examination question paper. They are typically used for assessment either of separate components of language knowledge (grammar, vocabulary, etc) or of perceptive understanding (listening and reading comprehension). (b) Performance tests. In language tests, a class of test in which assessment is carried out in a context where the candidate is involved in an act of communication. Performance tests are most commonly test of speaking and writing, in which a more or less extended sample of speech or writing is elicited from the test-taker, and judged by one or more trained raters using and agreed rating procedure.
(2) Based on its Purpose. According to Brown, (2004;43) there are several
types of tests according to its purpose; “language aptitude tests”, “language proficiency test”, “placement test”, “diagnostic test”, and “achievement tests”.
(a) Language Aptitude Tests. This type of tests predicts a person’s success prior to exposure to the second language. A language aptitude test is designed to measure the capacity or general ability to learn a foreign language an ultimate success in that
undertaking. Language aptitude tests are ostensibly designed to apply to the classroom learning of any language; (b) Proficiency Tests. Proficiency Test aims to test global competence in a language. A proficiency test is not limited to any one course, curriculum, or single skill in the language; rather, it tests overall ability. Proficiency tests have traditionally consisted of standardized multiple-choice items on grammar, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and aural comprehension. Sometimes a sample of writing is added, and more recent tests also include oral production performance. As noted in the previous, such tests often have content validity weaknesses, but several decades of construct validation research have brought us much closer to construction successful communicative proficiency tests; (c) Placement Test. The purposes of the placement tests are to take a student into a particular level or section of a language curriculum or school. A placement test usually, but not always, includes a sampling of the material to be covered in the various courses in a curriculum; a student’s performance on the tests should indicate the point at which the student will find material neither too easy nor too difficult but appropriately challenging; (d) Diagnostic Tests. A diagnostic test is designed to diagnose specified aspects of a language. A test in pronunciation, for example, might diagnose the phonological features of English that are difficult for learners and should therefore become part of a curriculum. Usually, such tests offer a checklist of features for the administrator (often the teacher) to use in pinpointing difficulties.
A writing diagnostic would elicit a writing sample from students that would allow
the teacher to identity those rhetorical and linguistics features on which the course needed to focus special attention; (e) Achievement Tests. An achievement test is related directly to classroom lessons, units, or even a total curriculum. Achievement tests are (or should be) limited to particular material addressed in a curriculum within a particular time frame and are offered after a course has focused on the objectives in
question. Achievement tests can also serve the diagnostic role of indicating what a student needs to continue to work on in the future, but the primary role of an achievement test is to determine whether course objectives have been met – and appropriate knowledge and skill acquired – by the end of the period instruction.
(3) Based on the Nature of Answer. According to Gronlund (1993: pp. 27
28) this category falls into selection-type items and supply-type items. The selection-type item presents students with a set of possible responses from which they are to select the most appropriate answer. The supply-type item requires students to create and supply their own answers. These two major categories can be used to classify the most widely used item types as follows:
(a) Selection-type items. Gronlund (1993: p.78) states that selection-type items can be designed to measure a variety of learning outcomes, ranging from simple to complex. They tend to be favors in achievement tests because they provide 1) greater control of the type of response students can make, 2) broader sampling of achievement, and 3) quicker and more objective scoring.
Despite these advantages, supply-type items can also play an important role in measuring achievement. a) Multiple Choices. The multiple item consists of stem, which presents a problem situation, and several alternatives (options or choices), which provide possible solutions to the problem. The stem may be a question or an incomplete statement. The alternatives include the correct answer and several plausible wrong answer called distracters. The function of the latter is to distract those students who are uncertain of the answer. b) True-false. Gronlund (1993: p.62) states that true-false items are typically used to measure the ability to identify whether statements of fact are correct. The basic format is simply a declarative statement that the student must judge as true or false. There are modifications of this basic form in which the student must respond “yes” or “no”, “agree”, “right”, or
“wrong”, “fact”, or “opinion”, and the like. Such variations are usually given the more general name of alternative-response items. c) Matching. The matching item is simply a variation of the multiple choice form. The matching format consists of a series of stems, called premises, and a series of alternative answers, called responses. There are arranged in columns with directions that set the rules for matching. d) Interpretive exercise. According to Gronlund (1993: pp. 71-72) complex learning outcomes can frequently be more effectively measured by basing a series of test items on a common selection of introductory material. This may be a paragraph, a table, a chart, a map, or a picture. The items that follow the introductory material may be designed to call forth any type of intellectual ability or skill that can be measured objectively. This type of exercise is commonly called an interpretive exercise and both multiple-choice and alternative response items are widely used measure interpretation of introductory material.
(b) Supply-type items. These items require students to produce answer. This may be a single word or a several-page response. Although the length of response ranges along a continuum, supply-types are typically divided into 1) short-answer items, the short answer (completion) item requires the examinee to supply the appropriate words, numbers, or symbols to answer a question or complete a statement. (Gronlund, 1993: p.79); 2) restricted-response essay, the restricted-response question places strict limits on the answer to be given. The boundary of the subject matter to be considered are usually narrowly defined by the problem, and the specific form of the answer is also commonly indicated (by words such as “list,” “define”, and “give reasons”). In some cases the response is limited further by the use of introductory material or by the use of special direction. 3) extended-response question, it gives the students almost unlimited freedom to determine the form and scope of their responses. Although in some instances rather rigid practical limits may
be imposed, such as time limits or page limits, restriction on the material to be included in the answer and on the form of the responses are held to a minimum. The students must be given sufficient freedom to demonstrate skills or synthesis and evaluation, and just called forth by the question. Thus, the amount of structure will vary from item to item depending on the learning outcomes being measured, but the stress will always be on providing as much as the situation permits.

MATERIALS

Materials are the systematic description of the techniques and exercises to be used in class-room teaching. Such a definition is broad enough to encompass lesson plans and yet can accommodate books, packets of audiovisual aids, games, or any of the myriad types of activities that go on in the language classroom. The key in developing sound materials is to ensure that key are described and organized well enough so that teachers can use them with no confusion and with a minimum of preparation time.
The followings are the materials for vocational school:
1.1.1.1 Greetings and leave taking.
Introducing
Thanking
Apologizing
Grammar Review (Personal Pronoun Subject & possessive)
1.1.1.2 Adjective showing colors, quality, size, shape, age, origin, material
Profession, nationality
Adjective showing physical
Nouns showing time, day, date, month, year.
Grammar review (Singular-plural nouns)
1.1.1.3 Cardinal and ordinal numbers
Adjectives of quality and size
Adjectives of shape
Adjectives of age
Adjectives of color
Nationality/profession
Adjectives in series
Description of events
Antonym/synonym
Words
1.1.1.4 Words and expressions used to show regrets and apologies
Words and expressions used to express sympathy
Adjectives for expressing feelings
Adjectives (-‘ing’ vs ‘ed’)
Adjective set expressions (-get bored; turn bad, etc)
Subject –verb agreement
Words and expressions used in asking for and giving permission
Grammar (Modals)
Expressions and verb forms used in command and requests.
Responses to commands
Expressions used for offering things and services
1.1.1.5 Words and expressions used in the context of telling or
describing events.
Grammar: Present continuous, future continuous
Sentences using ‘there + be’
Prepositions (in, on, at, under, etc)
Questions about events
Expressions of feelings/opinions concerning an event
1.1.1.6 Samples of memo
Sample of menu
Words expressions to explain signs and symbols
Samples of timetable and schedule
Degrees of comparison
Pronouns and reported speech
1.1.1.7 Words and expressions used in expressing preference
1.1.1.8 Conditional sentence type 1, 2, and 3
Words and expressions used to talk about capabilities
Words and expressing used in asking for and giving
direction (location)
Prepositions of place (in front of, behind, beside. etc)
Grammar review: (will, could, would and prep: in, on,at)
Samples of invitation
Parts of personal invitations
Contents, style, spelling and punctuation.

TEACHING

The activity of teaching is as implementation the needs analysis information, goals, objectives, tests, and materials in the phase of curriculum development. The focus of the teaching phase is on the kinds of instruction that will characterize the program, that is, on the kinds of teaching that will be required to achieve the goals of the program.
The followings are the teaching activities:
1.1.1.1.1 ● Listening
About greetings
Listening for information
Dictation
● Speaking
Saying greetings
Role playing
Telling oneself
● Reading
Reading for Information
Short passages
Dialogues
● Writing
Completing dialogues
1.1.1.1.2 ● Listening
Matching picture with words
Dictation
Listening for information
● Speaking
Naming objects
● Reading
Reading for Information
● Writing
Completing passages with suitable words

1.1.1.1.3 ● Listening
Matching pictures with words
Dictations
Listening for information
● Speaking
Describing things, people, profession, and nationalities
Telling numbers, responding to questions about numbers
Discussing things based on physical appearance
Role playing dialogues
● Reading
Understanding and discussing passages
● Writing
Describing things
Matching numbers and the way they are said
Arranging jumbled paragraphs
Composing dialogues involving the use of numbers
in various contexts.
Writing paragraphs based on pictures
1.1.1.1.4 ● Listening
Dictation “Listening for information”
Completing passages
● Speaking
Pronunciation practice
Dialogue practice
In pairs, creating and practicing dialogues dealing with
regret, apologies, sympathy, asking for and giving
information, offering things, and services.
Expressing feelings about certain events.
● Reading
Reading for information
Dialogues
Stories which stimulate readers’ emotion
● Writing
Completing dialogues
Rearranging jumbled dialogues
Composing short stories (good or bad experiences)
1.1.1.1.5 ● Listening
Matching pictures and sentences
Completing passages
● Speaking
Pronunciation practice
Dialogue practice telling what’s happening in pictures
Giving responses to the events shown in pictures, films,
or dramas.
Dialogue practice using ‘there’
● Reading
Reading for information
● Writing
Writing short paragraphs based on pictures
1.1.1.1.6 ● Listening
Dictation
Completing memos and menus
Matching pictures based on signs, symbols, timetables,
and schedules given.
● Speaking
Pronunciation practice
Dialogue practice, involving memos, menus, signs, symbols,
timetables and schedule.
Making sentences using degrees of comparison, pronouns and
reported speech.
● Reading
Reading for information
● Writing
Completing timetables and schedules
Writing sentences using comparative degree, pronouns, and
reported speech.
Composing memos and menus.

1.1.1.1.7 ● Listening
Dictation
Listening for information: dialogues
Listening and completing maps
● Speaking
Interviewing for one’s preferences and capabilities, asking
and giving directions based on maps given.
Responding to questions using conditional type 1, 2,and 3
● Reading
Reading for information passages, dialogues, etc
Identifying skills and capabilities from reading passages
Reading and finding a location on the map.
● Writing
Writing sentences expressing preferences and
capabilities, directions, or locations
Writing sentences using conditional type 1, 2, and 3
Composing dialogues involving preferences and capabilities
and giving directions.
1.1.1.1.8 ● Listening
Completing invitations
Listening for information
● Speaking
Pronunciation practice
Dialogue practice
Responding to questions dealing with invitations using “yes-no”,
and “Wh-questions”
Telling about invitations
Creating dialogues in pairs.
● Reading
Reading for information: invitations
● Writing
Rearranging jumbled sentences to create invitation
Writing personal invitations.

EVALUATIONS

The term broader evaluation includes all kinds of testing and measurements, as well as other types information, some of which may be more qualitative in nature. Such qualitative data-gathering procedures as interviews, case studies, classroom observation, meetings, diaries, or even conversation over coffee, can serve useful purposes – as useful, in fact, as the quantitative information gathered using various measurements.

CONCLUSION

In preparing the curriculum in addition to consider the sequence of stages of curriculum design, also must pay attention to what the school curriculum had been prepared, for example, the intended curriculum of vocational school students is different from public school students.
Another aspect in preparing the curriculum is a need also to consider the stakeholders of the users of the curriculum, so that the product as a result of the user’s school curriculum is the students, they will have skills that are appropriate for the needs of stakeholders.
For teachers as the most important part of the curriculum is appropriate to use the curriculum as a guideline for the process of learning and teaching in schools.
References

Brown, James Dean. (2010) The Elements Of Language Curriculum. Massachusetts
USA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Hartoyo. 2011. Language Assessment. Program Pascasarjana, Universitas
Muhammadiyah Proaf Dr. HAMKA.
Macalister, John and I.S.P. Nation. 2010. Language Curriculum Design. New York:Routledge.
Luoma, Sari. 2004. Assessing Speaking Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
McNamara, Tim. 2000. Language Testing. Oxford University Press.
Mortimer, C. (1997). Elements of Pronunciation. Cambridge University Press.
Read, J. (2000). Assessing Vocabulary. Cambridge University Press.
Santos, Rosita G (2007). Advanced Method in Educational Assessment and
Evaluation. Manila: Lorimar Publishing Inc.


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