There are a few of approaches in the TEFL used as the basis of teaching and learning as the second or foreign language to date. One of the approaches is the Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL), this approach is an instruction model that emphasize to the process of involvement student fully to find material that studied and relate it to the real life situation so can push student to apply it in their life. From the approach basic there are five of important characters in the process instruction that use Contextual Teaching and Learning approaches: (a) teaching and learning as activating knowledge; (b) acquiring knowledge; (c) understanding knowledge; (d) applying knowledge; and (e) reflecting knowledge. This article aims to review and applying this approach at the instruction process in the classroom of the Xth grade students of SMA PGRI 4 Bogor through lesson plan or instruction implementation plan and practices.
TEFL can be traced back to the late sixteenth century, when large numbers of French Huguenot refugees needed to learn English and the first textbooks were written (Howatt, 1984). English has been taught in Europe and countries that were part of the British Empire since then, but it is undoubtedly the case that there has been a huge growth in Teaching English as Foreign Language in the twentieth century and particularly 1945. This is largely due to the growth in use of English as the international language of science, technology, diplomacy, and business. Jernudd (1983) and Swales (1985) have shown that the proportion of academic articles written in the areas of science, technology, and economics has been increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that of the several million articles published every year at least half are published in English (Swales, 1987).
These trends have led to the development of Teaching English as Foreign Language which aims to teach English to non-native speakers of the language. To increase effectiveness and success in the Teaching of English as Foreign Language (TEFL), the linguists more and more seek and perfect either the teaching methodology or teaching approaches, through researches, experiments, seminars, discusses, etc, and one of these development results is the Contextual Teaching and Learning approach. This approach is an instruction model that emphasize to the process of involvement student fully to find material that studied and relate it to the real life situation so can push student to apply it in their life. From the concept of CTL there are three things that have to be understood, the first, CTL emphasize to process of student involvement for finding material, it means teaching process is oriented to the experience process directly. Teaching process in CTL context does not call out students just receive the lesson, but finding process and catching in lesson materials by their selves; second, CTL push students so that can find relationship between material that has been studied with the situation of real life; three, CTL push students to apply lesson that have been studied with the situation of real life, it means not only call out for students can comprehend materials that have been studied, but how the materials can color their behavior in daily life. Lesson materials in CTL context are not only stacked in brain and then forgotten, but as stock and preparation of them to meet the real life.
CTL has 7 principles as base of implementation the instruction process that use contextual instruction model. Sometimes these principles are also called CTL components;
1) Constructivism, instruction process through CTL basically pushes the students so that they can construct their knowledge through supervision and experience process. Why it is? Because, knowledge only will function if it is built by individual. The knowledge that only given will not become means knowledge. Based on the assumption that the very basic, so application of constructivism hope in CTL, students are pushed to able construct knowledge by their selves through the real experience.
2) Inquiry, the second principle in the CTL instruction is inquiry, it means, instruction process is based on finding and invention through thinking process systematically. Knowledge is not amount of result fact of recall, but process result of finding by his/ herself. Thereby in the planning process, the teacher does not prepare amount materials that must be recalled, but he design the lesson that enable students can find by their selves the materials that must be understood by them. Generally the inquiry process can be done through a few steps: a) formulate the problem; b) submit hypotheses; c) collect data; d) examine the hypotheses based data that has been invented; and e) make conclusion.
3) Question, study intrinsically that is asking the question and answer the question. Ask the question can be looked as a reflection from curiosity every individual; whereas answer the question as reflect on someone ability in the thinking. In the instruction process through CTL, teacher not only extends information, but raise students so that can find by their selves. In consequence the role asks the question is very important, because through questions the teacher can guide and direct students for finding every material that is studied by themselves.
In the productive speaking ask the question activity will be
useful for: a) dig the information about student ability in the mastery lesson materials; b) increase student studying motivation; c) stimulate student curiosity to the something; d) to focus student to the something that is wanted; e) guide student to find or conclude something.
4) Learning Community, In the CTL class, application of learning community principle can be done with apply instruction through learning community. Students can be divided into groups with character of members are heterogeneous, either looked of ability and speed of studying, or looked of their talent and interest.
5) Modeling, the meaning of modeling principle is instruction process with modeling something as an example that can be imitated by every student, such as the teacher give example how the way a tool can be operated, or how the way to pronounce a sentence, etc.
Modeling process is not limited the teacher only, but also can be
used by the student who has ability. Modeling as a principle has important role in the CTL instruction, because through modeling student can be avoided from abstract-theory instruction that enable verbalism cases.
6) Reflection, reflection is experience precipitation process that has been studied and it is done by reordering stages or instruction event that has been passed by the students. Through reflection process, the study experience will be entered into student cognitive structure that finally will be a part of knowledge that is owned by them. Moreover, through reflection process the students will renew knowledge that has been formed by them, and will add their knowledge area.
7) Authentic Assessment, Authentic assessment is a process that is done by the teacher to collect information about student development who is done by students. The assessment is needed to know whether the students are really study or not; what studying experience of students have positive influence to the intellectual development or student’s mental attitude.
Authentic assessment is done integrally with instruction
process. The assessment is done continually during instruction activity happened. Therefore, emphasize toward instruction process not toward the study result.
PATTERN AND INSTRUCTION STAGES OF CTL
Suppose at one day a teacher will teach his students about ‘daily activity’. Competency that must be reached is student ability to comprehend function and usage of tenses. So, to reach the competency must be formulated a few of the indicator of study result:
● student can explain about daily activities;
● student can formulate the tenses that related to the daily activities;
● student can explain the kind of tenses;
● student can explain the pattern of tenses;
● student can explain using of tenses;
● student can arrange a conclusion about tenses;
To reach goal competence above, with CTL the teacher must do the following stages: a. Introduction
(1) Teacher explain the competency that must be reached and also
use of instruction process and how importance of instruction material that will be studied.
(2) Teacher explain instruction procedure of CTL:
● students are divided into a few group suitable with amount of
● every group is assigned to do exercises that is given by
● every group arrange resume about tenses.
Teacher makes answer and question about assignment that must be done by every group.
Teacher and student or each group discuss about materials that have been explained or taught by teacher.
The following is CTL approach through Lesson Plan as applying and instruction implementation plan and practices.