1. The Foundations of Education are:
When we watch the education since human beings exists in the world up to now man never stops and never loses from education since he was born up to aging and to pass away. According to the study which act and to do by experts and educationists in the world, that the foundations of educations consists of four as follow; a) Philosophy; b) History; c) Human Needs; d) Religion.
a) Philosophy, According to study of educational process from ancient up to present, the education begins in Greek the first time, namely the period of philosophy and it begin at the Greek philosophy as Plato, Aristoteles, Thales, and Maximenes. Philosophy comes from the word of philein (verb) and Sophia (adjective) of Greek. Philein means to fond of talking, like to think. Sophia means virtue and wisdom or some is best or good, based on the terminology, so philosophy means is like to think, to fond of talking the virtue and wisdom and to be happy good performance before public. According to Plato that in the world there is Nouz, namely the greatest power, more than power of the King of Greek. Based on his beliefs he was put into jail by the Greek King and sentence to death by drinking poison. His students asked him to pull his think, in order to release from jail, but he refused to pull out, at the end of law in that since he was sentenced to death by drinking poison in jail. After many years what he thought it was true, she in the world there is the great Creator, who created the world there is the Great Creator, who created the world with its content, including human. In Islam and Christ were called God or Allah SWT. The ideas of Plato in education we can find in his book ‘Republic’. In this book according to Plato that the quarreling, war, killing and enemy when in the world or society there are the distributions of job or profession by expert in his field.
The profession of Plato’s idea are : (1) Artisans, (2) Warriors, and (3) Philosophers.
(1) ARTISANS. Artisans are the group of expert man who have capable preparing and create the primary needs of human being in the world. Among them are peasants, sailors, workers, labors, engineers and so on. They are educated as long as 10 years as artisans. At the end of study, they are examined who has the best, he can be continued his study to be warriors. If we compare with Indonesian Education is greet the same with National Exam or Ujian Nasional every year to select the best students to continue their study to the best in insliprite or best school.
(2) WARRIORS. Warriors are the guardians of mother land, who are expert to save territory, to guard mother land from enemy outside or inside like terrorists (nowadays), corruptions, or bandits, so motherland is save and some and government and people are save in daily life and motherland is constant to be peace. They are educated 10 years, and at the end of academic years, they are tested who are getting the best score or examination they have good chance to continue they study to the philosophers as 10 years again.
(3) PHILOSOPHERS. Philosophers are the experts in governments, the thinkers, the managers, and the leaders, to manage the Artisans and Warriors. Philosophers are the best citizens who are able to make mother land prosperity, or Baldattun Thoyibun Wa Robbun Ghofur or Gemah Ripah Lowjinawi, Aman dan tentrem.
According to Plato’s Educational idea, there is no interference to another job or position, there is no coup d’etat. Everybody works according to his education. All men are Good Citizen. The idea of Plato is frequently called the Theory of Plato Idea, because it is very difficult to realize in society or in the world. The Plato’s idea now is called Job Profession by Code Ethics. Teachers and Educators are Philosophers.
b) History, If we study the history of human kind by means of sociology, anthropology, philosophy, and technology, human beings never lost from education. There is one well-known book with title “Education from century to another century”. We find that man in the rest of his life always gets education. It is gotten from parents milieu, teachers, nature or experience, like the well known proverb: “Experience is the best teacher”. According to Soekarno: “The great nation learns from history”, because it contents all human need including education. Education can anticipate the future. The future is in the present, if someone to be good for the future he ought learns all from many persons, of course from school by means of teachers. In the history education Adam the first human beings in the world after God created him, then he was touched by Allah will be manager or caliph on the world, like we find in Holly Al Qur’an surat Al-Alaq as below: “In the name of Allah, the beneficent, the merciful.
“Read, the name of thy Lord who createth”
“Createth man from a clot”
“Read and it is thy Lord the most beautiful who teachteth man that which he knew not. Then Allah makes the fit and proper test in front of Satan and Angel”. According to the history Plate teaches people or someone by dialogue. By dialogue the person answers himself what Plato asks him by this method, Plato makes his people clever and know something.
c) Human needs, as we know that all human beings when they were born brought nothing with them, exception “Cry”. Cry the sign of no blind and dumb. The first stimulus comes to the human being is bound, in Islam called azan (boy) or iqomat (girl). By this stimulus caught and keep forever. According to biology that the brain consists of 20 milyard cells, every cell has own function for human self. According to the educational theory that human beings bring with him potentiality, talents, gifted or fitrah or the potentiality from he/his parents or ancestor. Why are the human beings educated? Because of the age human beings are long, so in the of their life ought to understand all on the world. He can understand all by education or learning. Learning by teacher, or by experience like the well known proverb: “Experience is the best teacher”. The other reasons why education is important for man, because the socious or society creature, they are interaction to the other in daily life where they are, an every can’t get his needs but he needs other persons to help him. For example, A fish can’t come self to his plate to eat. Many people help him to present that fish among them are sailor, labor, merchant, driver, engineer, and teacher, so on. Because of this need all people ought to educate all thing, more and more the society is always changing, and never stop changing, and man must be adapted to the change by education.
d) Religion, every religion teaches the believers by the holly book, like Zabur (psalms Mazmur), Injil (Gospel) and Al Qur’an. In those holly Book or Kitab content the subject for the believers in order that they obey to God and save in earth and save the hereafter. Religion leads the holder to the straight path in order they to the best the God Creatures and make the best interaction one to the other in their life. If we read all the holly book by means Holly Al Qur’an and we are taught that all ancient people got God’s learning or education from Allah, then by preaching of pastor, ulama, pedanda (Hindu Bali), brahmana or religious teachers at mosque, cathedral, church, klenteng, and pura.