Posted by: erienkoma | June 25, 2011

Standardized and Non-Standardized Tests

There are two sides of Standardized Tests:
(1) It is considered as an economical, reliable, and valid assessment in determining whether someone could enter, continue or exit institutions such as school, university, business, and government. The tests usually use multiple-choice format tests.
(2) According to Psychometrics such test covers only a narrow band of specialized intelligence.
Examples of Standardized Tests: TOEFL (Test of English as Foreign Language, TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication), IELTS (International English Language Testing System), GMAT (Graduate Management Admission System), etc.

Differences between Standardized Test and Teacher Made Test

Standard Test
1. generally prepared by specialists who know very well the principles of test construction;
2. prepared very carefully following principles of test construction;
3. given to a large proportion of the population for which they are intended for the computation of
norms;
4. generally correlated with other tests of known validity and reliability or with measures such as
school marks to determine their validity and reliability;
5. generally are high objective;
6. have their norms computed for purposes of comparison and interpretation;
7. measure innate capacities and characteristics as achievement;
8. intended to be used for a long period of time and for all people of the same class in the culture where
they are validated.
9. accompanied by manuals of instructions on how to administer and score the tests and how to
interpret the results;
10. generally copyrighted.

Teacher-made test
1. made by teachers who may not know very well the principles of test construction;
2. Often prepared hurriedly and haphazardly to be able to meet the deadline for administration;
3. Usually given only to a class or classes for which the tests are intended; usually, no norms are
computed;
4. Teacher-made tests are not subjected to any statistical procedures to determine their validity and
reliability;
5. May be objective and may essay in which case scoring is subjective;
6. Have no norms unless the teacher computes the median, mean, and other measures for comparison
and interpretation;
7. Generally measure subject achievement only;
8. Intended to be used only once or twice to measure achievement of students in a subject matter
studied during a certain period;
9. Do not have manuals of instructions, only the directions for the different types of tests which may be
given orally or in writing.
10. Not copyrighted.

● TOEFL (Test of English As Foreign Language)
TOEFL evaluates the potential success of an individual to use and understand standard American English at a college level. TOEFL is required for non-native applicants at many US and other English-speaking colleges and universities.
There are 2 types TOEFL test;
(1) Computer Based (CB); A traditional Paper-Based (PB);
(2) iBT (TOEFL) administered by internet.

TOEFL test consists of four sections outlined as follow:
(1) Listening Section
The listening section measures the examinee’s ability to understand English as it is spoken in North
America.
(2) Structure Section.
The structure section measures an examinee’s ability recognize language that is appropriate for
standard written English.
(3) Reading Section
The reading section measures the ability to read and understand short passages similar in topic and
style to academic tests used in North America colleges and universities.
(4) The writing section measures the ability to write in English, including the ability to generate,
organize, and develop ideas, to support those ideas with examples or evidence, and to compose a
response to one assigned topic in standard written English.

● TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication)

TOEIC measures the ability of non-native English-speaking people to use English in everyday work activities. TOEIC test is used particularly for business, commerce, and industry contexts.

TOEIC test is administered for 2 hours with multiple-choice responses both for computer-based and paper-based tests.

TOEIC is divided two sections of tests;
(1) Listening Comprehension; (2) Reading Comprehension

(1) Listening Comprehension 100 items administered by audio cassette.
Four types of task; statements, questions, short conversations, and short talks (approximately 45
minutes)

(2) Reading 100 items. Three types of task; Cloze sentences, error recognition, and reading
comprehension (75 minutes)

Using of TOEIC
TOEIC used International Test of English proficiency in workplace or vocational settings where English is required for job performance.
The content includes many different employment settings such as conferences, presentations, sales, ordering, shipping, schedules, reservations, letters, and memoranda.
Scale Test 5 – 495 points.
Total Score 10 – 990 points.

The TOEIC certificate consist of five colors, corresponding to achieved results:
-orange (110-215)
-brown (220-465)
-green (470-725)
-blue (730-855)
-gold (860-990)

● IELTS (International English Language Testing System)

It is managed by the University of Cambridge ESOL, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia.

IELTS is accepted in most Australian, British, Canadian, Irish, New Zealand, South African, and USA.

• IELTS consist of : Two types test;
(1) Computer based (for Reading and Writing sections);
(2) Paper based (for the Listening and Speaking modules)

Two types responses;
(1) Multiple Choice;
(2) Essay

Time : 2 hours and 45 minutes.

Posted by: erienkoma | May 18, 2011

Semantics:The Study of Meaning, Language in Use

Abstract

Semantics is study of the meaning of words and other parts of language, or the systematic study of meaning. The study of meaning can be undertaken in various ways. Speakers of a language have an implicit knowledge about what is meaningful in their language and it easy to show this. Three disciplines are concerned with the systematic study of ‘meaning’ in itself: psychology, philosophy, and linguistics.
In this paper the writers try to describe different approaches to the investigation of meaning. Linguistic semantics is concerned with what knowledge individual speakers of a language possess which makes it for them to communicate with one another.
More over, trough this paper the writers try to describe more at the specific features of communication, beginning with observations about non linguistic signs and how we get meaning from them. We introduce a distinction between a sentence, a language construction, and an utterance, a particular act of speaking or writing. An utterance is typically part of a larger discourse. In spoken discourse meanings are partly communicated by the emphases and melodies that are called prosody. Vocal and gestural signs can also be the means of transmitting meanings.
INTRODUCTION
Long before linguistics existed as a discipline, thinkers were speculating about the nature of meaning. For thousands of years, this question has been considered central to philosophy. More recently, it has come to be important in psychology as well. Contributions to semantics have come from a diverse group of scholars, ranging from Plato and Aristotle in ancient Greece to Bertrand Russell in the twentieth century.
1. The study of meaning, by virtue of their meaning, words and phrases are able to enter into a variety of semantic relations with other words and phrases in the language. Because these relationships help identify those aspects of meaning relevant to linguistic analysis.
Synonyms are words or expressions that have the same meanings in some or
all contexts. Look at the following table.
Table 1.1 Some synonyms in English

● In the spine, the thoracic vertebrae are above the lumbar vertebrae.
In the spine, the lumbar vertebrae are below the thoracic vertebrae.

Antonym are words or phrases that are opposites with respect to some component of their meaning.
Table 1.2 Some antonyms in English

Contradict each other:

Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia.
Jakarta isn’t the capital of Indonesia
Polysemy occurs where a word has two or more related meanings.
Table 1.3 Some polysemy in English
Word Meaning A Meaning B
bright
to glare
a deposit shining
to shine intensely
minerals in the earth intelligent
to stare angrily
money in the bank

Homophony exist where a single form has two or more entirely distinct meanings. In such cases, it is assumed that there are two (or more) separate words with the same pronunciation rather than a single word with different meanings.

Table 1.4 Some homophones in English
Word Meaning A Meaning B
bat

bank

club
plot
pen A flying, mouse-like nocturnal mammal.
A financial institution

A social organization
A plan of a literary work
A writing instrument A piece of equipment used in cricket or baseball.
A small cliff at the edge of a river.
A blunt weapon
A small piece of ground
A small cage

1.1. Systematic study of meaning

Linguistic semantics is an attempt to explicate the knowledge of any
speakers of a language which allows that speaker to communicate facts, feeling, intentions and products of the imagination to other speakers and to understand what they communicate to him or her..

Three disciplines are concerned with the systematic study of ‘meaning’ in itself:
psychology, philosophy, and linguistics. Psychologists, they are interested in: how individual human learn, how they retain, recall, or lose information; how they classify, make judgments and solve problems. In other words, how the human mind seeks meanings, and works with them; Philosophers of language are concerned with how we know, how any particular fact that we know or accept as true is related to other possible facts In other words, what must be antecedent to that fact and what is a likely consequence, or entailment of it; what statements are mutually contradictory, which sentences express the same meaning in different words, and which are unrelated; Linguists want to understand how language works. Just what common knowledge do two people posses when they share a language that makes it possible for them to give and get information, to express their feelings and their intentions to another, and to be understood with a fair degree of success.
While linguistic semantic is concerned with the language system that people have in common that makes them able to communicate with one another, pragmatic is the study (and description) of how people actually use language in communicating. The elements of language are similar to natural signs and, more especially, to conventional signals. A sign is meaningful to us only if we perceive it, identify it and interpret it.

1.2 Nature of Language

All animal have some system for communication with other member of their members of their species, but only humans have a language which allows them to produce and understand ever-new message and to do without any outside stimulus. Bees, birds, dolphins and chimpanzees, among other animals, transmit and interpret a fixed number of messages that signal friendliness or hostility, the presence of food or of danger, or have to do with mating and care of offspring.
According to Hockett (1957; 574 850; Bickerton (1990:10-16) humans can be differed from animals because of, first, animal communicate only response to some particular stimulus. Human (stimulus free) are able to talk about vast numbers of things which come from accumulated knowledge, memory, and imagination; second, animals have only a fixed repertoire of messages. Human language is creative – can produce new utterances which others understand. Arbitrariness – there is no natural relation and what that word designates.
1.3 Language and the individual

Language is considered to be a system of communicating with other people using sound, symbol, words in expressing a meaning, ideas or thought. Human child learn language of the society in which it grows up, and acquires the fundamentals of that language in the first or six years of life, at about the age of twelve months, begins to imitate its parents’ ways of naming what is the environment (bed, bottle, doll, baby, mama, etc) and of telling the characteristics and events in which these things can be observed (wet, empty, up, sit, all-gone). By the age of eighteen months the child is likely to be producing two-word utterances (baby up, Daddy bye bye, Mama shoes, Dolly sit). Soon utterances become more and more complex, and these utterances are clearly invented, not just repetitions of what parents may have said. According to Lenneberg (1967); Clark and Clark (1977:295 – 403), process that go beyond a mere reflection of what is in the environment and make it possible for the child to express himself and interact with others. And then, our ability to use language and our ability to think and conceptualize, develop at the same time and these abilities depend on each other.
Knowledge that a speaker of a language has about that language is a vocabulary and the ways to use it. More specifically, speakers have two vocabularies, one that is needed for understanding a variety of people. The vocabulary contains numerous names of people and places, as well as what we might think of as ordinary words; And knowledge that makes one capable of using the vocabulary, productively and receptively is he has to know how to combine the vocabulary items into utterances that will carry meanings for others and he has to grasp the meanings of complex utterances that others produce. For production or recognition, he must know the pronunciation, how it fits into various utterances, and what it means.

1.4. Demonstrating semantic knowledge
To demonstrate semantic knowledge the speakers must have a vocabulary and know how to pronounce every item in this vocabulary and how to recognize its production by other speakers. According to Bierwisch (1970: 167-75); Dillon (1977: 1-6), it is fairly easy to show what knowledge speakers have about meanings in their language and therefore what things must be included in an account of semantics.
The followings demonstrate ten aspects of any speaker’s semantic knowledge.
1. Meaningful in English
1a. Henry drew a picture.
1b. Henry laughed.
1c. The picture laughed.
1d. Picture a Henry drew.
1a and 1b are meaningful, while 1c and 1d are anomalous (examples of anomaly). Sentence 1c has the appearance of being meaningful and it might attain meaning in some children’s story or the like, while 1d is merely a sequence of words.

2. Speakers of a language generally agree as to when two sentences have essentially the same meaning and when they do not.
2a. Rebecca got home before Robert.
2b. Robert got home before Rebecca.
2c. Robert arrived at home after Rebecca.
2d. Rebecca got home later than Robert.

Sentences that make equivalent statements about the same entities, like 2a and 2c, or 2b and 2d, are paraphrases (of each other).

3. Speakers generally agree when two words have essentially the same meaning – in a given context. In each sentence below one word is underlined. Following the sentence is a group of words, one of which can replace the underlined word without changing the meaning of the sentence.
3a. Where did you purchase these tools?
use buy release modify take.

3b. At the end of the street we saw two enormous statues.
pink smooth nice huge original

Word that have the same sense in a given context are synonyms – they are instances of synonymy and are synonymous with each other.

4. Speakers recognize when the meaning of one sentence contradicts another sentence. The sentences below are all about the same person, but two of them are related in such a way that if one is true the other must be false.
4a. Edgar is married.
4b. Edgar is fairly rich.
4c. Edgar is no longer young.
4d. Edgar is a bachelor.

Sentence that make opposite statements about the same subject are contradictory.
5. Speakers generally agree when two words have opposite meanings in a given context. For example, speakers are able to choose from the group of words following 5a and 5b the word which is contrary to the underlined word in each sentence.
5a. Betty cut a thick slice a cake.
bright new soft thin wet

5b. The train departs at 12:25.
arrives leaves waits swerves

Two words that make opposite statements about the same subject are antonyms; they are antonymous, instances of antonymy.

6. Some sentences have double meanings; they can be interpreted in two ways. Speakers are aware of this fact because they appreciate jokes which depend on two-way interpretation, like the following.
6a. Marjorie doesn’t care for her parakeet.
(doesn’t like it; doesn’t take care of it)

6b. Marjorie took the sick parakeet to a small animal hospital.
(small hospital for animals; hospital for small animals)

A sentence that has two meanings is ambiguous – an example of ambiguity.

7. Speakers are aware that two statements may be related in such a way that if one is true, the other must also be true.

7a. There are tulips in the garden
7b. There are flowers in the garden.
7c. The ladder is too short to reach the roof.
7d. The ladder isn’t long enough to reach the roof.

These pairs of sentences are examples of entailment. Assuming that 9a and 9b are about the same garden, the truth of 9a entails the truth of 9b, that is, if 9a is true, 9b must also be true. Likewise, assuming the same ladder and roof, the truth of 9c entails the truth of 9d.

2.1 Language in use

Pragmatics: another branch of linguistics that is concerned with meaning,
but speakers also know how to use this knowledge when they listen and read, when they speak and write – when they communicate (particular acts of communication).
The study of how words and phrases are used with special meanings in particular situations.
e.g. “When did you last see my brother?”
“ Around noon,”
“Last Tuesday,”
“I think it was on June first,”…. And so on.

Different between Pragmatics and Semantics
Semantics: Mainly concerned with a speaker’s competence to use the language system in producing meaningful utterances and processing (comprehending) utterances produced by others.
Pragmatics: a person’s ability to derive meanings from specific kinds of speech
situations – to recognize what the speaker is referring to, to relate new information, to interpret, to infer, …

2.2 Natural and conventional
Language is a system of symbols through which people communicate. e.g. spoken, written, or signed with the hands. Language is only one of the common activities of a society. The totality of common activities, institutions, and beliefs make up the culture of that society.
A language is a complex system of symbols, or signs, that are shared by members of a community. It will be useful to consider other signs that we know and how we react to them. e.g. Signs : Cases foot prints Robinson Crusoe in the Defoe’s novel; we see smoke and know that there is a fire; A black cloud informs us of the possibility of rain; treetops moving tell us that wind is blowing.
Our own bodies: earaches and hunger pangs, interpret shivering, perspiration, head nodding with drowsiness. All sorts of sights, sounds and smells, in modern life: horns, whistles, sirens, buzzers and bells. None of these communication uses language, though of course devising, installing and learning them could not be accomplished by people who had no language.
Perception, the sign and the observer share a context of place and time in which the sign attracts the observer’s attention (the process of using the senses to acquire information about the surrounding environment or situation). e.g. Robinson Crusoe with footprint.

Identification, is the action of identifying somebody or something, or an act of recognizing and naming somebody or something.
Interpretation, The meaning of any sign depends on the space-time context in
which we observe it. e.g. – cases Crusoe’s reaction and footprint was due to the circumstances of his life; the whistle of a policeman directing traffic, the whistle of a hotel doorman summoning a taxi, and the whistle of the referee in a soccer game.

2.3. Linguistic signs
Words are linguistic signs, similar in certain respects to natural and conventional signs. In order to grasp what somebody says, we must first of all perceive the utterance.
Clark (1996:92 – 121) Identification of the elements in an utterance requires speaker and hearer to share ‘common ground’.
2.4 Utterance and sentence
Different pieces of language can have different meanings in different contexts.
illustrate:

A beggar who has not eaten all day says “I’m hungry”;
A child who hopes to put off going to bed announces “I’m hungry”;
A young man who hopes to get better acquainted with one of his co-workers and intends to ask her to have dinner with him begins with the statement “I’m hungry”;

They are different intentions – interpreted differently because the situations and the participants are different. Each of three speech events illustrated above is a different utterance, and we write and utterance with quotation marks: “I’m hungry.”
Each utterance contains the same sentence, which we write with italics: I’m hungry. A Sentence is not event; it is a construction of words in a particular sequence which is meaningful.
• An utterance is often part of a larger discourse – a conversation, a formal lecture, a poem, a short story, a business letter, or a love letter, among other possibilities.
• A written discourse may be the record of something that has been spoken, or it, may originate for the purpose of being performed aloud, like a play or speech, articles, books.
2.5 Prosody
Prosody is an important carrier of meaning in spoken utterances and consists of two parts, accent and intonation.
e.g. 1. A: Has the Winston Street bus come yet?
B: Sorry. I didn’t understand. What did you say?

2. C: I’m afraid Fred didn’t like the remark I made.
D: Oh? What did you say?

3. E: Some of my partners said they wouldn’t accept these terms.
F: And you? What did you say?
4. G: You’re misquoting me. I didn’t say anything like that.
H: Oh? What did you say?

1. T did you say?
A
H
W
S
2. What did you A
Y?
Y
3. What did O
U say?
D
4. What I
D you say?

• Intonation is the set of tunes that can diff-erentiate meanings of utterances
with the same verbal content. Intonation patterns are falls and rise in pitch and combinations of falls and rises. Generally a fall indicates spe-aker dominance or ter-mination. A rise is hearer oriented and suggests continuance.

Accents is the comparatively greater force and higher pitch that makes one part of the utterance more prominent than other parts. It has a syntagmatic function, giving focus is an emphasis on one word as opposed to other words that might have been used.
• Accent is mobile, enabling us to communicate different meanings by putting the emphasis in different places. The usual place is on last important word,
e.g.
• “I’d never say THAT” with one focus and “I/would NEVer/say THAT”with three.
My cousin is an ARchitect.

● If the utterance is broken into two or more sense groups, each group has its own accent. The last accent is ordinarily the most prominent of all because the pitch changes on that syllable.
My COUsin is an ARchitect.
My cousin EDWard, who lives in
FULton, is an ARchitect.
The placement of accent on different words ties the utterance to what has been said previously. For example, in reply to the question.
• “What does your cousin do?”, one might say:
• My cousin
• Edward ‘s an
• He ARchitect.
architect is new information, something not previously mentioned, Edward my cousin is old.
The Role of accent
Each of the following utterances has an emphasis that makes a contrast.
Alex phoned Edna LAST Sunday.
Alex phoned EDna last Sunday.
Alex PHONED Edna last Sunday.
Alex phoned Edna last Sunday.
A falling pitch is more ‘normal’ of and, correspondingly, a rising pitch at the end of an utterance is the indication of something special.
• Allen (1968:Chapter 5);
A falling tune suggests that the speaker is confident of what he or she is saying and the utterance is delivered with finality; it shows speaker dominance.
A rising tune is more oriented toward the addressee. It is customary when the speaker is asking the addressee to repeat, or to contradict what has just been said.
1. Statement vs question (fall vs rise)
Yes. Yes? This is the place.
This is the place?
With a falling tone “Yes” is an answer to some question and “This is the place” is a statement. With rising tones the speaker seeks confirmation or information from addressee.
2. Information sought vs repetition
requested (fall vs rise)
When? Where?
When? Where?
• With “When?,” “Where?” rising,
the speaker is asking for repetition of something that was said; the speaker has understood enough of the previous utterance to know that some time or place was mentioned. The falling intonation in such utterances is a request for information that has not yet been given.
3. Parallel structure vs antithesis
(fallvs fall and rise)
This is my sister, Ellen.
This is my sister, Ellen.
If sister and Ellen have the same tune, a fall on sister and a long fall on Ellen, the parallel structure indicates a correlation of the two – specifically here, equivalence: that Ellen is the name of the speaker’s sister. Fall on sister – typically a long fall – and a short rise on Ellen denotes lack of correlation, so that Ellen can only be the name of the addressee, a short vocative attached to an utterance.
4. Open question vs alternative question (rise vs rise, fall)
Do you have a pencil or a pen?
Do you have a pencil or a pen?
The distinction here reflects the speaker’s attitude, perhaps about what seems appropriate in what addressee can answer.
5. Full statement vs reservation (fall vs fall-rise)
That’s true, (or That’s true.)
That’s true.
This difference reflects the speaker’s attitude. A fall expresses agreement with what has been said; a fall and short rise expresses only partial agreement, agreement with reservations.
2.6. Non-verbal communication
paralanguage nonverbal vocal nuances in commu-nication that may add meaning to language as it is used in context, e.g. tone of voice or whispering.
Gestures, a movement made with a part of the body in order to express meaning or emotion or to communicate an instruction. In gestures, the former, the visible signs, have the capacity to communicate in much the way a word communicates; the latter could only be said to communicate in a secondary sense.
Consider the visual sign;
Nodding the head in response to an utterance.
Crossing one’s fingers.
Pretending to yawn, with finger tips in front of mouth.
Holding up a thumb from a closed fist.
Pinching one’s nostrils closed with thumb and forefinger.

3. CONCLUSION

The study of meaning can be undertaken in various ways. Linguistic semantics is an attempt to explicate the knowledge of any speaker of a language which allows that speaker to communicate fact, feelings, intentions and products of the imagination to other speakers and to understand what they communicate to him or her. Language differs from the communication systems of other animals in being stimulus-free and creative.
The elements of language are similar to natural signs and, more especially, to conventional signals. A sign is meaningful to us only if we perceive it, identify it and interpret it. Speakers do not merely have certain abstract knowledge; they use that knowledge in various social contexts. Piece of language, like other signs, depend on context for what they signify. We recognize social context and linguistic context. We distinguish between sentence, a language formation and utterance, what is produced in a particular social context. The meaning that speakers extract from an utterance is often more than the linguistic message itself; knowledge of reality, the situation, and the participants in the communication event enables the individual to fill in. A conversational implicature is the formation that is not spoken but is understood in tying one utterance meaningfully to a previous utterance.

Abstract
The curriculum is the set of subjects provided by an education provider institution which contains the design lessons that will be given to participants of lessons in one period of education. Preparation of the subjects was adjusted to the circumstances and the ability of each level of education in educational administration.
In this paper the author presents the writing about the curriculum for vocational schools on technology and industry programs. The content of a curriculum is usually appropriated to the purposes and an objective of the educational system is implemented, such as, at this explaining curriculum for vocational school, technology and industry group, so that it can direct the educational curriculum towards the intended direction and purpose in learning activities as a whole.
Key words: curriculum, vocational school, technology and industry, and
education.

INTRODUCTION

Community needs for education in senior high school level is practical and ready to use much needed these days, it is not without reason, but because of the urgent needs of the community will be income in the family, and also the high cost of education at advanced level. While on business and industry as one of the stakeholders of the education world, the urgency of the need for personnel with expertise intermediate level skills are ready to use no longer inevitable.
Starting from these developments, the authors are very interested in writing a paper about the curriculum of the English language that is destined for students of vocational high schools (SMK) and industrial technology programs, where the curriculum was emphasized how the use of various aspects of the English language, adjusted for field-related work business and industry.

NEED ANALYSIS

In simplest terms, a needs analysis includes all the activities used to collect information about your students’ learning needs, wants, wishes, desires, etc… The process also sometimes involves looking at the expectations and requirements of other interested parties such as the teacher/teacher’s aid/tutor (you), administrators, financial supporters, and other people who may be impacted by the program (such as students’ family members or employers). A needs analysis can be very formal, extensive and time consuming, or it can be informal, narrowly focused and quick. Some of resources for conducting a needs analysis may include surveys and questionnaires, test scores, and interviews.
The information gleaned from a need analysis can be used to help you define program goals. These goals can then be stated as specific teaching objectives, which in turn will function as the foundation on which to develop lesson plans, materials, tests, assignments and activities. Basically, a needs analysis will help you to clarify the purposes of your language program.
How a needs analysis is completed will depend on the situation, who is doing it, why it is being done, etc… For example, in the first class I ever taught as a student teacher, my team-teacher and I really wanted to customize our instruction. We wanted our students to feel like we valued their input and opinions. We wanted them to see that we would implement suggestions that they gave us so that they would feel that this was really their class.
We put together a survey and a questionnaire to give our students on the first day as a sort of informal needs analysis that we could then use to help develop our lessons. We handed them out, and immediately panicked when we realized our students couldn’t understand a lick of what we had just given them and that half of our first day’s lesson was shot.
We ended up quickly sketching a mouth, an ear, a pencil, and an open book. By using our simple drawings and gestures we were able to get our students to raise their hands for the skill that was most important to them. After most of our students raised their hands for the mouth (speaking) and the ear (listening) we recognized that our detailed questionnaire and probing survey that focused primarily on reading and writing was not the right tool for needs analysis for that class.
We learned from that initial needs analyses, and as we continued to implement needs analysis through informal assessment over the semester to tweak our lesson planning, we became more flexible and better at figuring out our students needs and how best to meet them.

GOALS
Goal is about the general statements that must be accomplished by students in order to obtain and fulfill students’ needs.
• The followings are the GOALS of vocational school:

1.1 Understanding the basic expressions in social interaction for the sake of life.
1.2 Mention things, people, characteristics, time, day, month and year.

1.3 Describe objects, people, characteristics, time, day, month and year.

1.4 Producing simple utterances enough for basic functions.
1.5 Describes a simple activity that is happening.
1.6 Understanding simple memos and menus, itineraries of public transport, and traffic signs.

1.7 Understanding the words and foreign terms and simple sentences based on the formula.
1.8 Writing a simple invitation.

OBJECTIVES
Objectives are about the learning outcomes at the end of learning process that must be accomplished by students. While teacher overcome those well, teacher is assisted to create the activities which are suitable to the students.

The followings are the OBJECTIVES of vocational school

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.1.1 Greeting when meeting and parting used properly.
1.1.2 Introducing yourself and others are demonstrated properly.
1.1.3 Various expressions of thanks and responses are used appropriately.
1.1.4 Various expressions of remorse and apology as well as responses are demonstrated appropriately.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.2.1 The names of objects and words that describe the objects associated with the color, shape, origin, size, material, quantity, and quality mentioned correctly.
1.2.2 Words that describe people associated with the profession, nationality, physical characteristics, quality, and its activity is mentioned correctly.
1.2.3 Time of the day, the names of the day, date, month, year mentioned correctly.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.3.1 Numbers (cardinal/ordinal) are used appropriately in various contexts.
1.3.2 The words strung together with the right to describe objects by color, shape, origin, size, material, quantity and quality.
1.3.3 The words strung together with the right to describe the person associated with the profession, nationality, physical characteristics, quality, and its activities.
1.3.4 The words strung together with the right to describe an event based on time (time of the day), the names of the days, months, years.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.4.1 The expression of remorse and apology as well as giving the response told appropriately.
1.4.2 The expression of sympathy and giving responses to them conveyed appropriately.
1.4.3 The expression of various feelings conveyed accurately.
1.4.4 The expression of request and giving permission expressed accurately.
1.4.5 The expression of commands and requests are used appropriately.
1.4.6 The expression offers of goods and services are used appropriately.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.5.1 Events that is happening is told exactly in accordance with the time and place of occurrence.
1.5.2 Statement by using the “‘there is / are” told exactly according to the time and place of occurrence.
1.5.3 Questions about events that are happening are told accurately.
1.5.4 Disclosure of feelings / opinions about the events going on properly submitted.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.6.1 Messages written in memo form correctly.
1.6.2 Existing memo explained properly.
1.6.3 Menu written and explained properly.
1.6.4 Signs and symbols (e.g. traffic signs) are explained correctly.
1.6.5 Various kinds of schedules (timetables) is made and properly explained.
1.6.6 Forms of adjectives and descriptions are used appropriately to compare something.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.7.1 Various expressions for the express option (preferences) are used appropriately.
1.7.2 The phrase to express the modality (type conditional) is used appropriately.

By the end of the course, a student will be able to:
1.8.1 Various expressions to express capability (capabilities) are used appropriately.

1.8.2 The phrase to ask for and give directions and location is used appropriately.

1.8.3 A number of words arranged together into sentences that contain elements of the invitation.

1.8.4 Sentences arranged together properly to form the invitation.
1.8.5 A simple invitation (e.g. birthday invitation) is written correctly.
TESTING
At the time of carrying out teaching duties, teachers sometimes do not know how far the lessons given to students can be mastered, understood, and absorbed by students, then to know that teachers need to make a measurement or evaluation related to the above, for example through way, assessment, or test. Testing is a natural next step in the process of curriculum design. A test is a method of measuring a person’s ability, knowledge, or performance in a given domain (Brown, 2004, 3), Calderon & Gonzales (2007:7) defines test as a type of measuring instrument whose general characteristic is that it forces responses from a pupil and such responses are considered to be indicative of the pupil’s skill, knowledge, attitude, etc. (Bradfield and Moredock, p 44).
Before conducting test, there are a number of subjects the teacher need to be sure of; (1) the variations of the test; (2) the purpose of the test; (3) the objectives of the test; (4) the test specification; and (5) the arrangement of the selected test items.
There are at least three kinds of test; Based on its method, purpose, the nature of the answer, and alternative in assessment.
(1) Based on its Method, Language tests are different from each other in one
or the other way. Test, according to McNamara (2000), can be differentiated with respect to two kinds; method and purpose.
In terms of method, there are two kinds of tests as follow: (a) Traditional paper-and-pencil language tests. Paper-and-pencil test take the form of the familiar examination question paper. They are typically used for assessment either of separate components of language knowledge (grammar, vocabulary, etc) or of perceptive understanding (listening and reading comprehension). (b) Performance tests. In language tests, a class of test in which assessment is carried out in a context where the candidate is involved in an act of communication. Performance tests are most commonly test of speaking and writing, in which a more or less extended sample of speech or writing is elicited from the test-taker, and judged by one or more trained raters using and agreed rating procedure.
(2) Based on its Purpose. According to Brown, (2004;43) there are several
types of tests according to its purpose; “language aptitude tests”, “language proficiency test”, “placement test”, “diagnostic test”, and “achievement tests”.
(a) Language Aptitude Tests. This type of tests predicts a person’s success prior to exposure to the second language. A language aptitude test is designed to measure the capacity or general ability to learn a foreign language an ultimate success in that
undertaking. Language aptitude tests are ostensibly designed to apply to the classroom learning of any language; (b) Proficiency Tests. Proficiency Test aims to test global competence in a language. A proficiency test is not limited to any one course, curriculum, or single skill in the language; rather, it tests overall ability. Proficiency tests have traditionally consisted of standardized multiple-choice items on grammar, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and aural comprehension. Sometimes a sample of writing is added, and more recent tests also include oral production performance. As noted in the previous, such tests often have content validity weaknesses, but several decades of construct validation research have brought us much closer to construction successful communicative proficiency tests; (c) Placement Test. The purposes of the placement tests are to take a student into a particular level or section of a language curriculum or school. A placement test usually, but not always, includes a sampling of the material to be covered in the various courses in a curriculum; a student’s performance on the tests should indicate the point at which the student will find material neither too easy nor too difficult but appropriately challenging; (d) Diagnostic Tests. A diagnostic test is designed to diagnose specified aspects of a language. A test in pronunciation, for example, might diagnose the phonological features of English that are difficult for learners and should therefore become part of a curriculum. Usually, such tests offer a checklist of features for the administrator (often the teacher) to use in pinpointing difficulties.
A writing diagnostic would elicit a writing sample from students that would allow
the teacher to identity those rhetorical and linguistics features on which the course needed to focus special attention; (e) Achievement Tests. An achievement test is related directly to classroom lessons, units, or even a total curriculum. Achievement tests are (or should be) limited to particular material addressed in a curriculum within a particular time frame and are offered after a course has focused on the objectives in
question. Achievement tests can also serve the diagnostic role of indicating what a student needs to continue to work on in the future, but the primary role of an achievement test is to determine whether course objectives have been met – and appropriate knowledge and skill acquired – by the end of the period instruction.
(3) Based on the Nature of Answer. According to Gronlund (1993: pp. 27
28) this category falls into selection-type items and supply-type items. The selection-type item presents students with a set of possible responses from which they are to select the most appropriate answer. The supply-type item requires students to create and supply their own answers. These two major categories can be used to classify the most widely used item types as follows:
(a) Selection-type items. Gronlund (1993: p.78) states that selection-type items can be designed to measure a variety of learning outcomes, ranging from simple to complex. They tend to be favors in achievement tests because they provide 1) greater control of the type of response students can make, 2) broader sampling of achievement, and 3) quicker and more objective scoring.
Despite these advantages, supply-type items can also play an important role in measuring achievement. a) Multiple Choices. The multiple item consists of stem, which presents a problem situation, and several alternatives (options or choices), which provide possible solutions to the problem. The stem may be a question or an incomplete statement. The alternatives include the correct answer and several plausible wrong answer called distracters. The function of the latter is to distract those students who are uncertain of the answer. b) True-false. Gronlund (1993: p.62) states that true-false items are typically used to measure the ability to identify whether statements of fact are correct. The basic format is simply a declarative statement that the student must judge as true or false. There are modifications of this basic form in which the student must respond “yes” or “no”, “agree”, “right”, or
“wrong”, “fact”, or “opinion”, and the like. Such variations are usually given the more general name of alternative-response items. c) Matching. The matching item is simply a variation of the multiple choice form. The matching format consists of a series of stems, called premises, and a series of alternative answers, called responses. There are arranged in columns with directions that set the rules for matching. d) Interpretive exercise. According to Gronlund (1993: pp. 71-72) complex learning outcomes can frequently be more effectively measured by basing a series of test items on a common selection of introductory material. This may be a paragraph, a table, a chart, a map, or a picture. The items that follow the introductory material may be designed to call forth any type of intellectual ability or skill that can be measured objectively. This type of exercise is commonly called an interpretive exercise and both multiple-choice and alternative response items are widely used measure interpretation of introductory material.
(b) Supply-type items. These items require students to produce answer. This may be a single word or a several-page response. Although the length of response ranges along a continuum, supply-types are typically divided into 1) short-answer items, the short answer (completion) item requires the examinee to supply the appropriate words, numbers, or symbols to answer a question or complete a statement. (Gronlund, 1993: p.79); 2) restricted-response essay, the restricted-response question places strict limits on the answer to be given. The boundary of the subject matter to be considered are usually narrowly defined by the problem, and the specific form of the answer is also commonly indicated (by words such as “list,” “define”, and “give reasons”). In some cases the response is limited further by the use of introductory material or by the use of special direction. 3) extended-response question, it gives the students almost unlimited freedom to determine the form and scope of their responses. Although in some instances rather rigid practical limits may
be imposed, such as time limits or page limits, restriction on the material to be included in the answer and on the form of the responses are held to a minimum. The students must be given sufficient freedom to demonstrate skills or synthesis and evaluation, and just called forth by the question. Thus, the amount of structure will vary from item to item depending on the learning outcomes being measured, but the stress will always be on providing as much as the situation permits.

MATERIALS

Materials are the systematic description of the techniques and exercises to be used in class-room teaching. Such a definition is broad enough to encompass lesson plans and yet can accommodate books, packets of audiovisual aids, games, or any of the myriad types of activities that go on in the language classroom. The key in developing sound materials is to ensure that key are described and organized well enough so that teachers can use them with no confusion and with a minimum of preparation time.
The followings are the materials for vocational school:
1.1.1.1 Greetings and leave taking.
Introducing
Thanking
Apologizing
Grammar Review (Personal Pronoun Subject & possessive)
1.1.1.2 Adjective showing colors, quality, size, shape, age, origin, material
Profession, nationality
Adjective showing physical
Nouns showing time, day, date, month, year.
Grammar review (Singular-plural nouns)
1.1.1.3 Cardinal and ordinal numbers
Adjectives of quality and size
Adjectives of shape
Adjectives of age
Adjectives of color
Nationality/profession
Adjectives in series
Description of events
Antonym/synonym
Words
1.1.1.4 Words and expressions used to show regrets and apologies
Words and expressions used to express sympathy
Adjectives for expressing feelings
Adjectives (-‘ing’ vs ‘ed’)
Adjective set expressions (-get bored; turn bad, etc)
Subject –verb agreement
Words and expressions used in asking for and giving permission
Grammar (Modals)
Expressions and verb forms used in command and requests.
Responses to commands
Expressions used for offering things and services
1.1.1.5 Words and expressions used in the context of telling or
describing events.
Grammar: Present continuous, future continuous
Sentences using ‘there + be’
Prepositions (in, on, at, under, etc)
Questions about events
Expressions of feelings/opinions concerning an event
1.1.1.6 Samples of memo
Sample of menu
Words expressions to explain signs and symbols
Samples of timetable and schedule
Degrees of comparison
Pronouns and reported speech
1.1.1.7 Words and expressions used in expressing preference
1.1.1.8 Conditional sentence type 1, 2, and 3
Words and expressions used to talk about capabilities
Words and expressing used in asking for and giving
direction (location)
Prepositions of place (in front of, behind, beside. etc)
Grammar review: (will, could, would and prep: in, on,at)
Samples of invitation
Parts of personal invitations
Contents, style, spelling and punctuation.

TEACHING

The activity of teaching is as implementation the needs analysis information, goals, objectives, tests, and materials in the phase of curriculum development. The focus of the teaching phase is on the kinds of instruction that will characterize the program, that is, on the kinds of teaching that will be required to achieve the goals of the program.
The followings are the teaching activities:
1.1.1.1.1 ● Listening
About greetings
Listening for information
Dictation
● Speaking
Saying greetings
Role playing
Telling oneself
● Reading
Reading for Information
Short passages
Dialogues
● Writing
Completing dialogues
1.1.1.1.2 ● Listening
Matching picture with words
Dictation
Listening for information
● Speaking
Naming objects
● Reading
Reading for Information
● Writing
Completing passages with suitable words

1.1.1.1.3 ● Listening
Matching pictures with words
Dictations
Listening for information
● Speaking
Describing things, people, profession, and nationalities
Telling numbers, responding to questions about numbers
Discussing things based on physical appearance
Role playing dialogues
● Reading
Understanding and discussing passages
● Writing
Describing things
Matching numbers and the way they are said
Arranging jumbled paragraphs
Composing dialogues involving the use of numbers
in various contexts.
Writing paragraphs based on pictures
1.1.1.1.4 ● Listening
Dictation “Listening for information”
Completing passages
● Speaking
Pronunciation practice
Dialogue practice
In pairs, creating and practicing dialogues dealing with
regret, apologies, sympathy, asking for and giving
information, offering things, and services.
Expressing feelings about certain events.
● Reading
Reading for information
Dialogues
Stories which stimulate readers’ emotion
● Writing
Completing dialogues
Rearranging jumbled dialogues
Composing short stories (good or bad experiences)
1.1.1.1.5 ● Listening
Matching pictures and sentences
Completing passages
● Speaking
Pronunciation practice
Dialogue practice telling what’s happening in pictures
Giving responses to the events shown in pictures, films,
or dramas.
Dialogue practice using ‘there’
● Reading
Reading for information
● Writing
Writing short paragraphs based on pictures
1.1.1.1.6 ● Listening
Dictation
Completing memos and menus
Matching pictures based on signs, symbols, timetables,
and schedules given.
● Speaking
Pronunciation practice
Dialogue practice, involving memos, menus, signs, symbols,
timetables and schedule.
Making sentences using degrees of comparison, pronouns and
reported speech.
● Reading
Reading for information
● Writing
Completing timetables and schedules
Writing sentences using comparative degree, pronouns, and
reported speech.
Composing memos and menus.

1.1.1.1.7 ● Listening
Dictation
Listening for information: dialogues
Listening and completing maps
● Speaking
Interviewing for one’s preferences and capabilities, asking
and giving directions based on maps given.
Responding to questions using conditional type 1, 2,and 3
● Reading
Reading for information passages, dialogues, etc
Identifying skills and capabilities from reading passages
Reading and finding a location on the map.
● Writing
Writing sentences expressing preferences and
capabilities, directions, or locations
Writing sentences using conditional type 1, 2, and 3
Composing dialogues involving preferences and capabilities
and giving directions.
1.1.1.1.8 ● Listening
Completing invitations
Listening for information
● Speaking
Pronunciation practice
Dialogue practice
Responding to questions dealing with invitations using “yes-no”,
and “Wh-questions”
Telling about invitations
Creating dialogues in pairs.
● Reading
Reading for information: invitations
● Writing
Rearranging jumbled sentences to create invitation
Writing personal invitations.

EVALUATIONS

The term broader evaluation includes all kinds of testing and measurements, as well as other types information, some of which may be more qualitative in nature. Such qualitative data-gathering procedures as interviews, case studies, classroom observation, meetings, diaries, or even conversation over coffee, can serve useful purposes – as useful, in fact, as the quantitative information gathered using various measurements.

CONCLUSION

In preparing the curriculum in addition to consider the sequence of stages of curriculum design, also must pay attention to what the school curriculum had been prepared, for example, the intended curriculum of vocational school students is different from public school students.
Another aspect in preparing the curriculum is a need also to consider the stakeholders of the users of the curriculum, so that the product as a result of the user’s school curriculum is the students, they will have skills that are appropriate for the needs of stakeholders.
For teachers as the most important part of the curriculum is appropriate to use the curriculum as a guideline for the process of learning and teaching in schools.
References

Brown, James Dean. (2010) The Elements Of Language Curriculum. Massachusetts
USA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Hartoyo. 2011. Language Assessment. Program Pascasarjana, Universitas
Muhammadiyah Proaf Dr. HAMKA.
Macalister, John and I.S.P. Nation. 2010. Language Curriculum Design. New York:Routledge.
Luoma, Sari. 2004. Assessing Speaking Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
McNamara, Tim. 2000. Language Testing. Oxford University Press.
Mortimer, C. (1997). Elements of Pronunciation. Cambridge University Press.
Read, J. (2000). Assessing Vocabulary. Cambridge University Press.
Santos, Rosita G (2007). Advanced Method in Educational Assessment and
Evaluation. Manila: Lorimar Publishing Inc.

Posted by: erienkoma | February 3, 2011

Science, Technology, and Society

1. To illustrate how progresses of science and technology have become public concern Mc.Ginn quoted four news items from a San Francisco newspaper.
(a) Union Carbide Corporation in Bhopal India; the December 1984 toxic gas leak at the company’s pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, which took over 2,000 lives and inflicted about 200,000 casualties.
(b) Related the detonation the previous day, deep beneath the Nevada desert and in the face of domestic and international protest, of a nuclear bomb roughly ten times as powerful as the weapon that destroyed Hiroshima in August 1945.
(c) The case of a California man who, since suffering traumatic head injuries in an automobile accident in February 1983, had been in a comatose state in a convalescent home. In the wake of the American Medical Association’s then recently adopted policy declaring it ethically appropriate for physicians to withhold or withdraw feeding tubes from hopelessly comatose patients, the article related the efforts of the man’s brothers to obtain a court order authorizing the removal of his feeding and hydration tubes so that he could “die.”
(d) The imminent approval by the city of Palo Alto, California, of a contract that would make it and a number of adjacent communities part of what would become at that time the nation’s largest subscriber-owned cable TV system.

2. All of the four news are related to the use of huge, public money. Even the claim to private
company Union Carbide Corporation, if it is granted it will involve the use of public money. To pay claim of a tentative $350 million settlement of tens of billions of dollars of damage,
Union Carbide Corporation didn’t have money, so USA Government had to pay the claim through bailout grant. However, the bailout grant involves the use of public money. Furthermore, the Union Carbide Corporation had to repay his debts to the government.

3. One of the items concerns with public safety is Detonation bomb at Nevada dessert.

4. Which items concerns law and which one should relate to graft or corruption?
A contract that would make it and a number of adjacent communities part of what would become at that time the nation’s largest subscriber-owned cable TV system.

5. The USA and Allied victory in the Second World War was related to technology and scientific superiority, Explain! The victory of USA and Allied in the Second World War because of they use atomic bomb. For example, USA and Allied used the atomic bomb to conquer Japan.

6. Which incident shows that US successes in nuclear technology constitute a threat to the country?
Nuclear weapons, products designed for chemical or biological warfare, toxic or lethal by-products of manufacturing or energy-generation processes, and products that threaten the viability of the ecosystem. Understanding the conditions that lead to the creation and irresponsible use of such substances and developing means by which their production and diffusion might be restricted or prevented is a task as difficult as it is urgent.

7. The US Companies which use high technology! General Motors, Ford, IBM, General Electric, AT&T, Du Pont, and Chrysler.

8. Indonesia technological company? IPTN, PINDAD, TElKOM, PAL, INDOSAT and PT.DAHANA

9. Mention examples of medical services which are supported by technological progresses!
Artificial hip implant, cholesterol level declined dramatically as a result of taking and anti- cholesterol drug, baby’s survival, after being born two months prematurely, was due not only to the efforts of highly competent medical professionals, but also to drugs that accelerated his lungs’ development in utero and to the high-technology equipment in the intensive-care pediatric nursery in which he spent his first three weeks.

10. Give three examples of human successes in technology!
The invention of civilian jet aircraft transportation; the landing Apollo on the moon; and antibiotics; the personal computer.

11. Give three examples of human failure in technology!
The Bhopal; Chernobyl; and challenger space-shuttle disasters; the pesticides DDT; the Ford Pinto; building collapses and airplane crashes traceable to defective engineering; and various forms of environmental degradation and human diseases caused in part by irresponsible scientific and technological practices.

12. Dumps of chemical waste of industries could become a threat for human safety; Can you give an example of this kind of threat in Indonesia?
Dumps of chemical waste of industries particularly as mercury, cobalt, and ferro cyanide to the Ciliwung river will contaminate the water environment and then it will pollute the sea biota so all of the sea life will be extinct, even can threat people life who consume the sea food.

13. Technological products which become threat to human survival? Pesticide DDT

14. What is the essence of the USA conflicts with North Korea and Iran that prevailed recently?
The essences of conflicts are the USA doesn’t agree with the Development Nuclear in North Korea and Iran but North Korea and Iran refuse the USA pressure.

15. What does Mc.Ginn mean by “a task as difficult as it is urgent” in commenting about restriction of dangerous substance production.
Understanding the conditions that lead to the creation and irresponsible use of such substances and developing means by which their production and diffusion might be restricted or prevented is a task as difficult as it is urges.

Posted by: erienkoma | February 3, 2011

THE PHASE OF HUMAN LIFE AND EDUCATION

Human is creature’s Allah that is created in the best form. There is no creature of Allah creation that most perfect than human genesis, both in the spiritual aspect and physical aspect. The genesis process is also longest than the others that is 280 days in his mother pregnancy, so that in the longest process, he develops become a perfect man because he will receive the message of Allah become caliph, that is manager of world who is trusted by Allah. (Al Baqarah, verse 28).
Human is created by God from nothing to be present and he will return to Him without except. To be watched from the life man cycle since his genesis till he return to Him (Allah), he will undergo five life cycle phase, that are:

1. The phase of spiritual realm or Lauhul Mahfudz,
2. The phase of womb realm or conception phase,
3. The phase of transitory realm or the world realm,
4. The phase of tomb realm or barzah realm,
5. The phase of hereafter realm or forever realm.

Allah decree in the Surah Al-Insyiqaq-verse 19, that actually the life human process undergoes step by step process.

1) The phase of spiritual realm or Lauhul Mahfudz
Before the human underwent womb realm or conception phase in his mother pregnancy, He had been in a realm which all human soul collection in God’s hand, and we are the human didn’t know where we were. In the Islam teaching, that all the human period during his caliphate in the world has been programmed. For example, his fortune, his couple, all of the life cycle who will be passed, his tries who will be passed, and also his happiness, etc, during he undergoes his short life in the world next.
Only Allah who is omniscient all of something in the world, and Allah will not announce to the human. Allah instruct the human pray (ask) to Him and try, if he try to effort and his request is fulfill the requirements his praying, of course his praying will be granted by Allah. (surah Al Baqarah verse 186 and Al Insiqaq verse 6)

When My servants ask thee concerning Me, I am indeed close (to them) : I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he calleth on Me: Let them also, with a will, listen to My call, And believe in Me : That they may walk in the right way. (Al Baqarah 186)

According to Plato
According to Plato in his philosophy, the spiritual life like this it is called the life over there realm and also is known Plato Idea Realm Theory. Plato thought that human soul before he integrated with the body, he had known all of content’s nature completely.
In the over there realm all of soul (according to Plato’s conviction) had known all of things over there realm by human soul and all of the experience soul in the realm.
Furthermore, the origin and true science according to Plato is the science that gained by soul in the over there realm, that there is in human mind. When the human meet with everything in the world, actually he had known with everything who ever had been watched by the soul in the over there realm. This Plato’s theory was known with the science theory that said, according to philosophy, that the origin and true science that was science in the body and human mind. The science in the human idea is science perfect. After the body and soul had been integrated, so they were tighten each other and then the soul couldn’t wander as he did in the over there realm. Therefore, whether in the sense on the world realm actually it is a duplication from over there realm.
Plato also acknowledges that on the reign in the world there was another absolute reign it was called NOUS. Plato’s conviction in his the philosophy was against with conviction of the rulers at that time with the result that Plato had to be punished and he entered into the jail, finally he was punished die with drank the poison. Although before the execution was done, a few of his pupils had begged to him so that he drew his conviction, but he didn’t want to change his conviction. Finally with his former conviction he drank the poison in the jail. Furthermore, whether that was convicted by Plato with his NOUS was acknowledged by the divinity philosophies that were there was supernatural absolute.

2) The phase of conception realm
The second cycle of every life human is the phase of conception realm that is live through mother pregnancy. Every human who was born to the world according to God’s rule have to through the phase of conception realm in the certain time. In the conception realm human physic grow and develop as conception and regularly according Biology rule that has been determined. In the surah As Sajdah (verse 8 – 9) God saying He create the human descent from water essence that is called sperm (ma-in rahim)

● And made his progeny from a quintessence of the
nature of a fluid despised.
● But He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed
into him something of his spirit. And he gave you (the faculties of)
hearing and sight and feeling (And understanding): Little thanks do
ye give!

The explicitness is repeated again by Allah in the surah Al Mukminun verse 12 – 14:

● And We did create from a quintessence (of clay). (Al Baqarah12)

● Then We placed him as (a drop of)sperm in place rest, firmly fixed; (Al Baqarah 13)

● Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; Then of that clot We made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature. So blessed be God, the Best to create. (Al Baqarah 14)

In the womb a human in conception/fetus form, he grows and develops during more or less 208 days. In the womb a human fetus is maintained and protected by his mother who is his pregnant. He is sleep in the womb and all of needs for growing and developing has been available by his mother and all of the needs is ready for use that is brought by blood stream in the essence of biology form through placenta. He is maintained by examine her pregnant to the doctor or midwife regularly so that his grow and his develop can be tracked finely. Moreover, with grown and development of pregnant science, development of a human fetus can be detected accurately, even his date day can be calculated, so that his mother can prepare the birth of her baby properly.
To the woman is generated by Allah one of His character that is merciful. In the conception realm a human candidate is in restful, safe, and peacefully. He is never left by his mother who is her pregnant, he is brought to everywhere. Such it is very large the affection of a mother to her baby’s candidate who is pregnant by her. All of sufferings who is undergone by a mother during pregnant is resisted toughly, so sometimes her healthy is bothered because big stomach. In the big stomach period several of jeremiads who are felt even until the time of birth arrive. When she will burn a mother fights between die or live for baby birth that is beloved. It is true decree of Allah who is warn to all of human so that “Don’t do talk impolite and rough to his mother”, because his mother has been his being pregnant and maintain with affection. Even a mother sometimes who is being pregnant feels worried with bad mind, when her baby doesn’t move. But if her baby in the womb has moved again she feels joy and happy because her baby is still live.
Since conception realm a mother begin prenatal education to her baby, that is a mother familiarize herself to eat the nutrient foods regularly, has a good idea for her baby, she tries to keep her emotion so that her condition become good and the blood stream flows regularly so the food that is needed by her baby can pass through the placenta regularly that is received by navel and be continued to all of the body of baby.
Therefore, for an educated husband, he will try as optimal as possible that can be done for maintaining and make it up to his wife heart who is being pregnant and affords to give the nutrient foods (empat sehat lima sempurna). Although, the prices of foods are not expensive, the nutrient of food must always high, so that the growing of her baby candidate continues finely and perfectly. There from maintains a mother who is pregnant very important for continuing the health of a mother herself and her pregnant.
Why Allah creates the growing and development human candidate in the womb need long time. Because his growing has to pass the perfect stages so that her birth will be perfect, as is decreed by Allah, that We have created the human in the best form (laqad khalaqnal insana fi ahsanit taqwiim). The event and development perfectly is needed, because the human will receive responsibility as a leader in the world (caliphate) after his period come (adult).
The other thing with development and growing the others creatures, they are usually created is no longer because the animals will be not became the leader in the world but as part of range of facilities the human life and to fulfill needs.

3) The phase of transitory realm or world realm
After the growing and development period in the womb perfect so the baby is born in the world. When he is born and until certain time he can’t do anything. He is very depend on aid of his mother and his father and his environment. Since he was born by his mother, he always studies until return to his God. The baby is born cannot do anything. He is weak and impotence. Through maintain and nurture and nature he begins showing his growing and body development according to growing and development process.
According to a personage of Anthropology Philosophy, Bolk, that a human child is born too early morning, means his birth is too quickly than with birth of the animals, so he can’t do anything. The other thing with the animals that his birth is not too early morning, so when he is born he has been suitable with his environment, even among of them there is the animal that can live without helped by his mother. What it is said by Bolk implied many blessing as that is given away as a tithe (fitrah) by God, that the human must hard study, study since from his birth (ayunan) till to the grave hole. Bolk’s opinion enforce the Islam’s opinion and teachings, that is “for managing the world has to by science and to gain the hereafter also has to by science,” as it is said in the part of hadist of Muhammad SAW. This thing is suitable with the content of surah Al Baqarah that told, Adam AS prophet before he was promoted to become caliph Allah in the world, he had been thought by Allah about the names of things (science) and then he was tested by Allah at front of angels and satan (Iblis) (Al Baqarah verse 31).
Through his parents, a child who has been born he begins get an education formally. He is thought drinking from his mother’s breast (ASI) and learns to know his parents and his brothers and sisters. All of things are thought by his parents, even how the way to urine and feces are also thought. During he is in upbringing by his parents, a lot of practice experiences are thought by his parents, so he can suitable with his environment. Moral education, means, and religion also are thought by his parents.
After he is 7 year, that is the mature age for going to school, so he is entered to the kindergarten, and then to the elementary school, between 7 o’clock till 10 o’clock a.m. it the best time for mother to complete all of housewife’s work, such as, washing the clothes, maintain the home, go to the market and then cooks, so at 10 o’clock when her child arrives at home all foods are ready for her child.
Why do his parents send to school? This thing, it is because his parents usually don’t have science and education to teach his child, such as knowledge and skills. That has all of science and education are school. Furthermore, under upbringing of teachers in the school, the child more and more undergoes development quickly, so he can pass his elementary school (SD/Ibtidaiyah) then he continues to the junior school (SMP/Tsanawiyah), senior high school (SMA/Aliyah), and finally to higher education (Perguruan Tinggi/Al Jami’ah).
All of education needs are fulfilled by his parents, so at one moment he will be an adult human who is stand alone.
How large the share of parents in enlarge and his educate with their affection, without care about how joy and sorrow to educate and enlarge, so he will be the human who know the god and bad. The child will be sinful if he doesn’t know how to thanks and devotion to his parents who has being pregnant and enlarge. In one of part hadist is told, that at the moment Muhammad prophet is asked by his friend in the meeting, “ Hoi Muhammad Rasulullah, to whom the first I devotion?” these questions are asked until three times, the prophet answer with the same answer as many as three times, that is devotion to your mother (Umuka, umuka, umuka). And at the fourth question his friend ask again to the prophet, ”Who else, hoi Rosulullah?” the prophet replied,” To your father (Ubuka).”
In surah Al Baqarah is also insisted by God, that a child is forbidden to talk with hurt parent’s feeling, talk roughly, and to make his parents sad (Uffin), for example, be opposed his parent’s suggest, to snarl, but he has to talk softly, and finely to his parents. The action to hurt the parents is pushed away by Allah, as is told by Allah in surah Al Isra verse 23. In the Muhammad Rasulullah era there was a child of his friend, who was his father a syahid man in Uhud war, he was agony. After prophet and his friend had given a pray to him repeatedly, but he didn’t die. Then, Muhammad Rasulullah ordered his friend to call mother’s child to come to him. Muhammad Rasulullah ask mother’s child to forgive his son but the child still agony, because still there was a sin of the child to his mother that had not been forgiven yet. So Muhammad prophet decides,” Hoi my friends, get the woods and then will burn this child so that he soon meets with his God.” When mother’s child heard prophet’s decision, she forgave again her son truly and then soon the child die.
From event that is excerpted, we know how great of merits and appreciation to the mother in Islam, so a child at first must devotion to his mother, then his father. Don’t hurt their heart, you must remember that old human usually is easier to be sad his/her heart. Because of the reason Muhammad prophet when he is praying he never forgets to pray for his parents,” Alhummagfir li walidaiyya hamhuma kamaa robbayani saghiira, Alhummagfir la huma, warhamhumma, wa’afihumma, wa’fu’anhuma,” and so on.
The ages of human in the world is not long, more and less 80 years and in this ages we cannot do anything, even senile. During the human lives in the world he is average productive in the ages 25 years, and it is wasted for studying about 18 years.
How is very lucky for the human who has iman (aladiina aamanu), he has knowledge and give charity, such as, the teachers, ustadzs, and docents. They are included Allah servant who makes merit and virtuous every day, because they teach the science and to make smart people. These charities or good deed are appreciated as hadist Rasulullah SAW,” If an Adam’s son is dying so cut all of his charities except three things:

(1) His good child who always pray to his parents.
(2) His useful science that can be used by the people.
(3) His charities that is given to the poor truly.

Therefore, for the teachers, or educators at least they have plant their invest for growing, developing, and to make the people become smart. According to hadist Rosulullah ,”Actually Allah lifts degree of people who believe from you that are looking for science.”
According to Islam teachings during his charities and his science that is invented and it is developed by Muslim and it is still used by the people, so he will get and it will be written in his charity book (Al Isra verse 71 and Al Muthafifin verse 17-20).

4) The phase of grave realm or barzah realm
In the same manner as explained in the above, that the man age is limited and also period of their caliphate will be ended, that is ended by death. The death cannot be postponed although for the while according to the people wish. Allah decree, ”If the death has arrived it cannot be moved for postponing or is moved forward just the moment,” (Sura An Nahl verse 4, Al Munafiqun and Al Mukminun verse 43) “Every soul shall have a taste of death; And only on the Day of Judgment shall you be paid full recompense. Only he who is saved far from the fire and admitted to the garden will have attained the object (of life): For the life of this world is but goods and chattels of deception.” (Sura Ali Imran verse 185)
If the death of someone has come, he soon is buried. He doesn’t bring something. All of treasure, beautiful wife or handsome husband, children, and also his family don’t follow him. All of them just lead him to the grave. After he is buried all of them will return to each home. Only shroud cloth is brought by him into the brave hole. And the shroud will be destroy and decayed in the land and will not follow him to meet Allah SWT. Every Muslim who die all things that related to the world and all of charity are cut with him, except three things, that are the good child who always pray to his parents, useful science that can be used by the people, and charities that is given to the poor truly. These three kindnesses those are always followed by him to the grave realm or hereafter realm.
According to Islam teachings, if a Muslim die and he is a good servant and he doesn’t do a denial and sin during he still alive in the world, so the angel will come to his grave and talk,” O ye a pious Allah servant, please sleep soundly until the doomsday arrive and will be not punished. However, if he during live in the world he do a denial and sin, so the angels will come to his grave and they will torture him or a sinner.
The punishment for a sinner will be received not only in the grave but also in hereafter day, and he will enter into the hell (sura Al Muthafifin verse 1-11). A sinner will regret and he will say to Allah “Oh my God return me to the world again.” (sura Al Mukminun verse 99). How is mortified the Allah torture in the grave realm, so he doesn’t endure it, so the denial man to Allah during his live realize after he die. On the other hand, for the Muslim believers to the Allah and do all of the kindnesses and he doesn’t do the for- bidden things by Allah, he doesn’t will the torture in the grave realm, and the angel will order him to sleep soundly until the doomsday arrive and he will go to the heaven with the others Muslim believers.
According to Muslim religious teacher (Ulama), when a die man is left by the delivers and his family, he will be come by soul of the pious men and ask him how about his family who is left by him. So he will answer and give information, that all of his family who is left by him is in good condition, and they obey to the shalat (pray), and do the orders of Allah, so they (soul of the pious men) feel happy. And on the other hand, if all of his family who is left by him is in bad condition, so they will angry.
Therefore, for us who are still have remain live must realize that live in the world is very short and we must do a good action as preparation to give the charities that will be brought to the Allah.
The human are descended in the world don’t do the destroy, but for a kindness and devotion to Allah. Because Allah descent the prophets for kindness, so his community will follow his kindness through his good teachings. How Allah most gracious and most merciful is. We are created by Allah and live in the world and then we are given all of needs and also we are given the patterns and guidance of life, in the Pattern of Master Plan and the Guidance for Muslim Believers those are Al-Qur’an and His Sunnah Rasul, so that these live peaceful and full of blessing of Allah. But a lot of human does not realize and little thanks. The result of the denial human we can see between of them mutually destroy and mutually mistrustfully. These things are happened because a part of them doesn’t hold the divine revelations of Allah, but just follow their desire. The groups one want force his desire to the others. Fifteen century ago Muhammad Prophet had brought unity of God teachings so that the human did a good act in the world and also with noble character, and did according to the rule of Allah.
Allah want His servant always kind and devotion to Him, therefore He send the delegates the prophets and messengers to His servant. So for Muslim believers who know to thanks of course will not do something that to make Allah is angry, because a lot of luck
and enjoyment that has been given to the human. So God in the sura Al Kautsar, decree;

● Indeed, We have granted you, [O Muhammad], the Fount (of abundance). (1)

● So pray to your Lord and sacrifice [to Him alone]. (2)

● Indeed, your enemy is the one cut off. (3)

If the human realize, that when he was born from his mother’s womb he didn’t bring anything and cannot do anything and now after he become a human being, he has have everything and his environment. What is the sign of thanks to Allah who has created and give the luck without asked? Very disadvantage for they who don’t know to thanks and they will be punished with the pain punishment. Allah decree, anyone who doesn’t know to thanks waits My very hurt torture and cannot be borne.

5) The phase of hereafter realm or forever realm.
At the fifth life cycle of human, all of the human will be awaked from his tomb realm. At that time the angel Isrofil blow his trumpet so Allah servants out from their tomb and the day is called Yaumul Ba’tsi that is awaked day from tomb realm. At the day all of the human go to the Mahsyar field, that is a place for assemble the entire human according to each group that is according to each prophet.
In the Mahsyar field every human is judged by Allah and they are given their record. Allah decree in sura Al Mukminun verse 101 – 105,”
يَتَسَاءلُونَ وَلَا يَوْمَئِذٍ بَيْنَهُمْ أَنسَابَ فَلَا الصُّورِ فِي نُفِخَ فَإِذَا
الْمُفْلِحُونَ هُمُ ئِكَ فَأُوْلَ نُهُ ازِيمَوَ ثَقُلَتْ فَمَن

خَالِدُونَ جَهَنَّمَ فِي أَنفُسَهُمْ خَسِرُوا الَّذِينَ ئِكَ فَأُوْلَنُهُ ازِيمَوَخَفَّتْ وَمَنْ

لِحُونَ كَا فِيهَا وَهُمْ النَّارُ مُ وهَهُوُجُ تَلْفَحُ

تُكَذِّبُونَ بِهَا فَكُنتُم عَلَيْكُمْ تُتْلَى آيَاتِي نْ تَكُ أَلَمْ

● Then when the trumpet is blown, that day, there will be no more relationships between them, Nor will one ask after another. (101)
● Then those whose balance (of good deeds) is heavy, they will attain salvation. (102)
● But those whose balance is light, will be those who have lost their souls, in hell will they abide. (103)
● The fire will burn their faces, and they will therein grin, with their lips displaced. (104)
●“Were not my signs rehearsed to you, and ye did but treat them as falsehood?” (105)

After each community is judged at hereafter day so life cycle of human that is from nothing is created become exist and from Allah come and finally return to Him, so human life cycle has been finished.
The Muslim believers enter into the Jannatun Naim paradise and they get enjoyment as in return and requital of observant to Allah together with the community as lucky as with him. And for they who don’t obey to the law of Allah, they are entered into Weil hell together with the human who has the same fate with them.

CONCLUSION

1) Live is not long and we are created and descent into the transitory realm that is for doing kindness to the others in realization of leadership that is trusted to us by Allah in the our devotion link to Him. Very lucky the Muslim believers with Allah verses and do the kindness during devotion period in the world are included the teachers and educators. They get the good requital from Allah in the hereafter day. They are placed in forever realm that cannot be imagined by the human except by Allah. Therefore, the guidance toward the place has given by Allah in the Al Qur’an and Al Hadist or Sunnah His Messenger.

2) Very disadvantage for the human who doesn’t receive the truth of Allah although Allah has given it with various way to them, both trough His messengers and His holy books and parables that has been shown to the human by religious teacher (Ulama) and leader of community (Umara).

3) For the human who is still alive and has chance with long age, they have to realize what the preparation is that has been done for meet Allah in the hereafter day. Allah most merciful and most graceful and Allah most receivers repent and forswear His servant who want return to Him.

Increase the good act and devotion to HIM.

Posted by: erienkoma | February 3, 2011

CTL – (Increasing English Teaching through CTL)

Abstract

There are a few of approaches in the TEFL used as the basis of teaching and learning as the second or foreign language to date. One of the approaches is the Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL), this approach is an instruction model that emphasize to the process of involvement student fully to find material that studied and relate it to the real life situation so can push student to apply it in their life. From the approach basic there are five of important characters in the process instruction that use Contextual Teaching and Learning approaches: (a) teaching and learning as activating knowledge; (b) acquiring knowledge; (c) understanding knowledge; (d) applying knowledge; and (e) reflecting knowledge. This article aims to review and applying this approach at the instruction process in the classroom of the Xth grade students of SMA PGRI 4 Bogor through lesson plan or instruction implementation plan and practices.

INTRODUCTION

TEFL can be traced back to the late sixteenth century, when large numbers of French Huguenot refugees needed to learn English and the first textbooks were written (Howatt, 1984). English has been taught in Europe and countries that were part of the British Empire since then, but it is undoubtedly the case that there has been a huge growth in Teaching English as Foreign Language in the twentieth century and particularly 1945. This is largely due to the growth in use of English as the international language of science, technology, diplomacy, and business. Jernudd (1983) and Swales (1985) have shown that the proportion of academic articles written in the areas of science, technology, and economics has been increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that of the several million articles published every year at least half are published in English (Swales, 1987).
These trends have led to the development of Teaching English as Foreign Language which aims to teach English to non-native speakers of the language. To increase effectiveness and success in the Teaching of English as Foreign Language (TEFL), the linguists more and more seek and perfect either the teaching methodology or teaching approaches, through researches, experiments, seminars, discusses, etc, and one of these development results is the Contextual Teaching and Learning approach. This approach is an instruction model that emphasize to the process of involvement student fully to find material that studied and relate it to the real life situation so can push student to apply it in their life. From the concept of CTL there are three things that have to be understood, the first, CTL emphasize to process of student involvement for finding material, it means teaching process is oriented to the experience process directly. Teaching process in CTL context does not call out students just receive the lesson, but finding process and catching in lesson materials by their selves; second, CTL push students so that can find relationship between material that has been studied with the situation of real life; three, CTL push students to apply lesson that have been studied with the situation of real life, it means not only call out for students can comprehend materials that have been studied, but how the materials can color their behavior in daily life. Lesson materials in CTL context are not only stacked in brain and then forgotten, but as stock and preparation of them to meet the real life.

CTL PRINCIPLES

CTL has 7 principles as base of implementation the instruction process that use contextual instruction model. Sometimes these principles are also called CTL components;
1) Constructivism, instruction process through CTL basically pushes the students so that they can construct their knowledge through supervision and experience process. Why it is? Because, knowledge only will function if it is built by individual. The knowledge that only given will not become means knowledge. Based on the assumption that the very basic, so application of constructivism hope in CTL, students are pushed to able construct knowledge by their selves through the real experience.
2) Inquiry, the second principle in the CTL instruction is inquiry, it means, instruction process is based on finding and invention through thinking process systematically. Knowledge is not amount of result fact of recall, but process result of finding by his/ herself. Thereby in the planning process, the teacher does not prepare amount materials that must be recalled, but he design the lesson that enable students can find by their selves the materials that must be understood by them. Generally the inquiry process can be done through a few steps: a) formulate the problem; b) submit hypotheses; c) collect data; d) examine the hypotheses based data that has been invented; and e) make conclusion.
3) Question, study intrinsically that is asking the question and answer the question. Ask the question can be looked as a reflection from curiosity every individual; whereas answer the question as reflect on someone ability in the thinking. In the instruction process through CTL, teacher not only extends information, but raise students so that can find by their selves. In consequence the role asks the question is very important, because through questions the teacher can guide and direct students for finding every material that is studied by themselves.
In the productive speaking ask the question activity will be
useful for: a) dig the information about student ability in the mastery lesson materials; b) increase student studying motivation; c) stimulate student curiosity to the something; d) to focus student to the something that is wanted; e) guide student to find or conclude something.
4) Learning Community, In the CTL class, application of learning community principle can be done with apply instruction through learning community. Students can be divided into groups with character of members are heterogeneous, either looked of ability and speed of studying, or looked of their talent and interest.
5) Modeling, the meaning of modeling principle is instruction process with modeling something as an example that can be imitated by every student, such as the teacher give example how the way a tool can be operated, or how the way to pronounce a sentence, etc.
Modeling process is not limited the teacher only, but also can be
used by the student who has ability. Modeling as a principle has important role in the CTL instruction, because through modeling student can be avoided from abstract-theory instruction that enable verbalism cases.
6) Reflection, reflection is experience precipitation process that has been studied and it is done by reordering stages or instruction event that has been passed by the students. Through reflection process, the study experience will be entered into student cognitive structure that finally will be a part of knowledge that is owned by them. Moreover, through reflection process the students will renew knowledge that has been formed by them, and will add their knowledge area.
7) Authentic Assessment, Authentic assessment is a process that is done by the teacher to collect information about student development who is done by students. The assessment is needed to know whether the students are really study or not; what studying experience of students have positive influence to the intellectual development or student’s mental attitude.
Authentic assessment is done integrally with instruction
process. The assessment is done continually during instruction activity happened. Therefore, emphasize toward instruction process not toward the study result.

PATTERN AND INSTRUCTION STAGES OF CTL

Suppose at one day a teacher will teach his students about ‘daily activity’. Competency that must be reached is student ability to comprehend function and usage of tenses. So, to reach the competency must be formulated a few of the indicator of study result:

● student can explain about daily activities;
● student can formulate the tenses that related to the daily activities;
● student can explain the kind of tenses;
● student can explain the pattern of tenses;
● student can explain using of tenses;
● student can arrange a conclusion about tenses;

To reach goal competence above, with CTL the teacher must do the following stages: a. Introduction
(1) Teacher explain the competency that must be reached and also
use of instruction process and how importance of instruction material that will be studied.
(2) Teacher explain instruction procedure of CTL:
● students are divided into a few group suitable with amount of
student;
● every group is assigned to do exercises that is given by
teacher;
● every group arrange resume about tenses.
b. Core
Teacher makes answer and question about assignment that must be done by every group.
c. Closing
Teacher and student or each group discuss about materials that have been explained or taught by teacher.
The following is CTL approach through Lesson Plan as applying and instruction implementation plan and practices.

Posted by: erienkoma | February 3, 2011

TEFL and Its Relationship to Linguistics

Abstract
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) is the term used to refer to the activity of teaching English to non native speakers of the language. This activity is also referred to as Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL). In Britain is used more specifically to refer to the teaching of English in those countries where English has an official role in the educational or political system, TESL thus contrasts with TEFL which refers to those situations where English is not used as a medium of instruction and has no official status. TEFL underwent huge growth in the twentieth century and particularly since 1945, or after the Second World War. This is largely due to the growth in use of English as the international language of science, technology, diplomacy, business, and academic world. Between TEFL and Linguistics or Applied Linguistics have close relationship. At certain times, research carried out by either descriptive or applied linguists has had a strong influence on TEFL materials and methodology. Meanwhile, the pioneers TEFL work hard in classes at a school or other educational institutions to apply the theories of teaching based on the findings of the experts descriptive linguistics or applied linguistics, which will generate a new finding in the theory or a framework of a system teaching in the classroom. The framework pattern that has been done by the TEFL in turn will expand the work and encouraging new findings for linguistic and Applied Linguistics. This article aims describing the development of TEFL and its relationship to Linguistics, also how the way to apply and practice it to the student, particularly in Indonesia which English is studied and practiced as a foreign language.
Key Words: TEFL, ESP, development, relationship, ramification, approach, methodology, syllabuses, linguistics, and materials.

INTRODUCTION

Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) refers to teaching English to students whose first language is not English. TEFL usually is applied and practiced in the student’s own country, either within the state school system, or privately, e.g., in an after-hours language school or with a tutor. TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English. Qualifications for TEFL teachers are high enough; 1) being a native speaker of English; 2) having a university degree in English Education; and 3) having a Master’s Degree in teaching English as a foreign Language.
History of TEFL, TEFL history was begun at the late sixteenth century, when large numbers of French Huguenot refugees needed to learn English and the first textbooks were written (Howatt, 1984), furthermore using of TEFL extended in Europe and countries that were part of the British Empire. However, a huge growth of TEFL happened in the twentieth century and particularly since 1945 or after the Second World War. This is because using of English besides, as international language of science, technology, diplomacy, business, and also it is used as academic language.
DEVELOPMENT of TEFL

Development TEFL, the effect of using English hugely in the world has made TEFL becoming more developed and it has appeared a new branch of science that it is called English for Specific Purpose (ESP) which aims to teach specific language and skills related to different activities in academic or business life. But, the teaching of General-Purpose English has also grown considerably, and two institutions British Council and the American Information Services brought pass have developed and spread both ESP and General-Purpose English

to many countries of the world. Development of TEFL has also appeared issues about syllabus design and methodology. The methodology was known as The Grammar Translation Method, The method is the oldest method of teaching in India. A number of methods and techniques have evolved for the teaching of English and also other foreign languages in the recent past, yet this method is still in use in many part of India. It maintains the mother tongue of the learner as the reference particularly in the process of learning the second/foreign languages.
The main principles on which the Grammar Translation Method is based are the following: (1) Translation interprets the words and phrases of the foreign languages in the best possible manner; (2) The phraseology and the idiom of the target language can best be assimilated in the process of interpretation; (3) The structures of the foreign languages are best learned when compared and contrast with those of mother tongue.

In this method, while teaching the text books the teacher translates every word and phrase from English into the learners’ mother tongue. Further, students are required to translate sentences from their mother tongue into English. These exercises in translation are based on various items covering the grammar of the target language. The method emphasizes the study of grammar through deduction that is through the study of the rules of grammar. A contrastive study of the target language with the mother tongue gives an insight into the structure not only of the foreign language but also of the mother tongue.
Furthermore, the development of TEFL has also appeared new issues about The Reform Movement; it was developed in the late eighteenth century and was based on: (1) the primacy of speech; (2) the use of connected text as opposed to disconnected sentences; and (3) the use of an oral methodology. The development of Reform Movement happened step-by-step approach. After it passed a few periods, then appeared a new method that emphasis to ‘a natural methods of language teaching’. These have gone under names of the Natural Method, the Conversation Method and most notably the Direct Method.
Krashen and Terrell have identified the Natural Approach with what they call “traditional” approaches to language teaching. Traditional approaches are defined as “based on the use of language in communicative situations without recourse to the native language” – and, perhaps, needless to say, without reference to grammatical analysis, grammatical drilling, or to a particular theory of grammar. Krashen and Terrell note that such “approaches have been called natural, psychological, phonetic, new, reform, direct, analytic, imitative and so forth” (Krashen and Terrell 1983: 9). The fact that the authors of the Natural Approach relate their approach to the Natural Method has led some to assume chat Natural Approach and Natural Method are synonymous terms. Although the tradition is a common one, there are important differences between the Natural Approach and the older Natural Method, which it will be useful to consider at the outset.
The Natural Method is another term for what by the turn of the century had become known as the Direct Method. It is described in a report on the state of the art in language teaching com¬missioned by the Modern Language Association in 1901: The term natural, used in reference to the Direct Method, merely emphasized that the principles underlying the method were believed to conform to the principles of naturalistic language learning in young children. Similarly, the Natural Approach, as defined by Krashen and Terrell, is believed to conform to the naturalistic principles found in successful second language acquisition. Unlike the Direct Method, however, it places less emphasis on teacher monologues, direct repetition, and formal questions and answers, and less focus on accurate
production of target language sentences. In the Natural Approach there is an em-phasis on exposure, or input, rather than practice; optimizing emotional preparedness for learning; a prolonged period of attention to what the language learners hear before they try to produce language; and a will¬ingness to use written and other materials as a source of comprehensible input. The emphasis on the central role of comprehension in the Natural Approach links it to other comprehension-based approaches in language teaching.
H.E. Palmer in the early part of the twentieth century has developed a breakthrough with fusion philosophy of teaching through combine oral method and Direct Method, he used the question-answer techniques of Direct Method but has a more systematic approach to the selection of vocabulary and the presentation of grammatical points than that favored by the Direct Method. Another combine of philosophy of teaching that was done by Palmer through a fusion between some Direct Method exercises with pattern practice (teaching the main structures of English). Fries, a linguist from USA also had developed a new method through combine L.G. Alexander’s First Things First (his book with its extensive use of situations presented in pictures) and the courses that arose from the Audio-Lingual Method.
The audio-lingual method (ALM) arose as a direct result of the need for foreign language proficiency in listening and speaking skills during and after World War II. It is closely tied to behaviorism, and thus made drilling, repetition, and habit-formation central elements of instruction. Proponents of ALM felt that this emphasis on repetition needed a corollary emphasis on accuracy, claiming that continual repetition of errors would lead to the fixed acquisition of incorrect structures and non-standard pronunciation. In the classroom, lessons were often organized by grammatical structure and presented through short dialogues.

Often, students listened repeatedly to recordings of conversations (for example, in the language lab) and focused on accurately mimicking the pronunciation and grammatical structures in these dialogs.
However, Widdowson, in the 1970s, had given a significance contribution through his writings; his argued that language courses should concentrate on the use of language rather than usage. He defines usage as that aspect which makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his knowledge of
linguistic rules; use is another aspect of performance: that which makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his ability to use his knowledge of linguistic rules for effective communication.
Widdowson’s idea have had a huge influence on TEFL, particularly on ESP. From his idea have appeared Communicative Approach which emphasizes language use rather than language form, and also The Communicative Approach is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language. Example, practicing question forms by asking learners to find out personal information about their colleagues is an example of the communicative approach, as it involves meaningful communication. In the
Classroom activities guided by the communicative approach are characterized by trying to produce meaningful and real communication, at all levels. As a result there may be more emphasis on skills than systems, lessons are more learner-cantered, and there may be use of authentic materials. In the other words Communicative Approach aims to teach communicative competence (Hymes, 1972) which is the ability to apply the rules of grammar appropriately in the correct situation.
The syllabus that is used for practicing Communicative Approach is Notional Syllabuses (1976), which was developed by Wilkins. The term “notional syllabus” embraces any strategy of language teaching that derives the content of learning from an initial analysis of the learner’s need to express three different kinds of meaning: The three different types of meaning the learner needs to
express are: (1) Functional (i.e. the social purpose of the utterance, such as requesting, inviting, informing, apologizing, ordering, etc.); (2) Modal (the degree of likelihood); and (3) Conceptual – the meaning relations expressed by forms within the sentence (categories of communicative function).
Eclective Approach, it was developed by Brumfit and Prabhu in the late 1980s, which selects features from grammatical syllabuses, notional/functional syllabuses, and task-based approaches. Eclectic is one of the buzz words in TEFL at present, in part due to the realization that for the foreseeable future good language teaching is likely to continue to be based more on common sense, insights drawn from classroom experience, informed discussion among teachers, etc., than on any monolithic model of second language acquisition or all-embracing theory of learning…”. One problem with this position is that your “common sense” and your “insights” are apt to be different from mine. Another is that “discussion among teachers”, though valuable, is often a futile exercise in the blind leading the blind. No one with some knowledge of pedagogy and psychology would advocate a “monolithic model” of anything in teaching today. However, unless one has some theoretical foundation to one’s knowledge, one cannot construct a methodology of anything–including of foreign language teaching.

RAMIFICATION of TEFL

The development of the next TEFL is the emergence of new disciplinary branch of the Teaching English as a Foreign Language of ESP (English for
Specific Purpose). In ESP, the aims of the course are determined by the particular needs of the learners, and the growth of the use of English in science, technology, and business has led to both researches into the nature of learners’ needs and the preparation of teaching materials to meet those needs.
In line with the explanation above about ESP, Dudley-Evans (1997) defines ESP as follows; Absolute Characteristics: (1) ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learners; (2) ESP makes use of underlying methodology and
activities of the discipline it serves; and (3) ESP is centered on the language appropriate to these activities in terms of grammar, lexis, register, study skills, discourse and genre. Variable Characteristics: (1) ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines; (2) ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of General English; (3) ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for learners at secondary school level; (4) ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students; and (5) Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language systems.
Furthermore, Because so rapidly the need for specialized knowledge, especially teaching English to non native speakers, the ESP in its development have developed into two branches new disciplines, namely EAP (English for Academic Purposes) and EOP (English for Occupational Purposes). In the USA, English for Occupational Purposes is usually referred to as English for Vocational Purposes (EVP). EAP began as the dominant branch, but with the increased
interest in Business English, EOP has become increasingly important. Most EOP courses, have been strongly influenced by task-based syllabuses. The results of genre analysis are likely to have an increasing influence on both branches of ESP.
It’s a broad distinction. English for occupational purposes presumably
includes general English, business English etc., i.e. meant for everyday usage in your work for you to get by, or tourism English for that industry. English for academic purposes would touch upon the kind of English lessons and courses you take in order to pass certain standard tests like TOEFL, IELTS, Diploma or degrees etc. The curricula and the time for completion are quite different for the two streams.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEFL AND LINGUISTICS OR APPLIED LINGUISTICS

The relationship between TEFL and Linguistics or Applied Linguistics has
always been interesting. Because in a study conducted by experts’ descriptive linguistics or applied linguistics then the result will greatly affect the material TEFL, approach or methodology. Meanwhile, the pioneers TEFL work hard in classes at a school or other educational institutions to apply the theories of teaching based on the findings of the experts descriptive linguistics or applied linguistics, which will generate a new finding in the theory or a framework of a system teaching in the classroom. Framework pattern that has been done by the TEFL in turn will expand the work and encouraging new findings for linguistic and Applied Linguistics.
Howatt (1984) explains that the finding of the Reform Movement in the late 19th century has influenced the development of Phonetics and the formation of association such as the International Phonetics Association. The same things is
in the process of professionalization of TEFL in the first half of the Twentieth Century begins with the work of Daniel Jones in Phonetics but its development carried out by experts TEFL like Palmer, West, and Hornby. Their work is to develop teaching materials and his ideas they were poured in a number of books on teaching methodology, published in the 1950s and early 1960s, for example, a book by Abercombie, i.e. Problems and Principles (1956); West with his book, Teaching Home in Difficult Circumstances (1960); Billow with his book is,
Techniques of Language Teaching (1962). Previously an expert on linguistic namely Widdowson with his ideas have influenced the emergence of Communicative Approach in language teaching system, which in turn can attract the relationship between language and context of its environment, then the idea that continued application by Firth and Halliday. The success of the Communicative Approach is a reflection of the success that comes from Applied Linguistics.
CONCLUSION

TEFL in its development progressed very rapidly especially after the second world war, this is because English has become the international language used, and also used in the language of business, politics, law, science and technology, and academic language. Therefore it need for mastery of English is necessary, so that mastery of English can be done well, then TEFL as one means of teaching the English language continued to develop its system, a good way of teaching methodology, teaching approach, syllabus, materials, and infrastructure Other supportive.
TEFL relationship with Linguistics in general or specifically with descriptive Linguistics or Applied Linguistics are very closely, this is happened because any findings from research conducted by the Linguistics or Applied Linguistics and descriptive Lnguistics will be applied in TEFL, otherwise the findings generated by the TEFL pioneer in the field such as in a classroom at the school or other educational institutions will be the reference and expand the direction of working particularly with descriptive linguistics or linguistics and Applied Linguistics.

REFERENCES

Archibald, John. (2005) Second Language Acquisition-Contemporary Linguistics. USA : Bedford/St.Martin’s, Boston.
Aitchison, Jean. (2008) Linguistics. Hodder Headline Ltd. London, England.
Bynon, Theodora. (2005). Historical Linguistics. England : Cambridge University Press.
Brewster, Jean and Gail Ellis. (2005). The Primary English Teacher’s Guide. Edinburg, England : Penguin English Guide.
Harmer, Jeremy. (2005). The Practice of English Language Teaching. UK : Pearson Longman.
Gebhard G, Jerry (2005). Teaching English as a Foreign or Second Language. USA : University Michigan.
Lyons, John. (1970). Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. England : Cambridge University Press.
Richard, C. Jack. (2000). Theories of Teaching in Language Teaching. England : Cambridge University Press.
Robins, R.H (2000). General Linguistics. London : Longman.
Widdowson, H.G. (2009). Linguistics. England : Oxford University Press.

elen Hyun, seorang professor penelitian pada universitas eastern, ia mengharapkan pada studi pengaruh dari suatu program baru matematika pada keberhasilan matematika para siswa yang pelajaran matematikanya lemah di seluruh Sekolah Dasar Amerika Serikat. Karena dari sejumlah faktor, hanya ada dua, yaitu waktu dan dana yang tersedia, maka suatu hal yang mustahil bagi Helen dan para koleganya untuk melakukan try out pada program barunya itu untuk di uji cobakan pada seluruh populasi pelajar di Amerika Serikat. Mereka harus menyeleksi suatu sample. Apakah suatu sample itu? Apakah ada perbedaan dari macam-macam sample itu? Apakah ada yang lebih baik dari berbagai macam sample itu untuk dipelajari? Dan bagaimana seseorang dapat memperoleh suatu sample dari suatu tempat pertama? Untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut anda akan mempelajarinya pada chapter ini.

Ketika kita ingin mengetahui sesuatu tentang suatu kelompok orang tertentu, kita biasanya mencari beberapa anggota dari kelompok tersebut yang kita ketahui – atau tidak kita ketahui – dan mempelajarinya. Setelah kita menyelesaikan studi mengenai individu-individu tersebut, kita biasanya membuat beberapa kesimpulan-kesimpulan mengenai kelompok yang lebih besar, yang mana mereka merupakan bagian dari kelompok itu. Pada kenyataan, banyak observasi “commonsense”, berdasarkan atas observasi-observasi yang secara relative hanya terdiri dari beberapa orang. Hal itu merupakan sesuatu yang tidak umum, contohnya, untuk menyimak pernyataan seperti : “Sebagian besar pelajar putri tidak menyukai matematika”, “Anda tidak akan menemukan banyak guru yang merupakan pemilih partai Republik,” dan “Sebagian besar siswa yang bersekolah di sekolah perwira polisi adalah laki-laki.”

Apakah sebuah Sample itu?
Banyak orang, menurut pendapat kami, mendasarkan kesimpulan tentang kelompok orang (pelajar, Republican, pemain sepak bola, aktor, dan sebagainya) atas sejumlah pengalaman kecil yang mereka miliki, atau sample, dari individual anggota-anggota. Kadang-kadang kesimpulan yang seperti itu adalah representasi (perwakilan) yang tepat dari bagaimana kelompok yang lebih besar dari orang itu bertindak atau apa yang mereka yakini, tapi sering kesimpulan mereka tidak tepat. Hal itu semua bergantung atas bagaimana mewakili (representative) (i.e., bagaimana serupa) sample dari kelompok yang lebih besar.
Suatu langkah yang paling penting pada proses penelitian adalah seleksi dari sample individu-individu yang akan berpartisipasi (di observasi atau ditanya). Sampling yang menunjuk pada proses dari seleksi individu-individu itu.

SAMPLE DAN POPULASI
Suatu sample pada suatu studi penelitian adalah kelompok atas informasi yang diperoleh. Kelompok yang lebih besar yang mana mengharapkan menggunakan hasil itu disebut populasi. Sebagai contoh, semua 700 (atau berapapun jumlahnya) para siswa di Amerika Serikat yang sebagian besar dalam matematika, merupakan suatu populasi; 50 orang dari para siswa itu merupakan suatu sample. Mahasiswa yang memiliki mobil sendiri menyusun populasi lainnya, sebagai mahasiswa yang tinggal di asrama kampus. Perhatikan bahwa suatu kelompok itu mungkin dapat menjadi kedua suatu sample dalam satu konteks dan suatu populasi di dalam konteks lainnya. Semua mahasiswa universitas negeri yang memiliki mobil sendiri merupakan suatu populasi dari para pemilik mobil di universitas negeri, bahkan mereka juga merupakan suatu sample dari semua para pemilik mobil di universitas negeri di seluruh Amerika Serikat.
Ketika hal itu memungkinkan, para peneliti akan lebih baik mempelajari seluruh populasi yang berkepentingan. Tetapi biasanya, ini adalah hal yang sulit untuk dilakukan. Sebagian besar populasi-populasi yang berkepentingan adalah besar, beragam, dan terpencar-pencar atas berbagai wilayah. Penemuan, dengan melakukan kontak sendiri dengan semua anggota dapat memakan waktu dan biaya yang mahal. Oleh karena itu, berdasarkan keperluan, para peneliti sering menyeleksi suatu sample untuk mempelajarinya. Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh seleksi yang dilakukan dari suatu populasi:

● Seorang peneliti yang tertarik mempelajari pengaruh suatu diet menaruh perhatian
pada siswa kelas tiga di suatu kota besar. Terdapat 1500 siswa kelas tiga bersekolah di Sekolah Dasar di kota itu. Peneliti menyeleksi 150 siswa dari kelas tiga, masing-masing 30 dari lima sekolah-sekolah yang berbeda, sebagai suatu sample untuk dipelajari.
● Seorang administrator pada sebuah SMA di daerah urban tertarik pada pendapat-pendapat siswa mengenai program konseling yang baru di daerahnya. Terdapat 6 SMA dan jumlah siswa sebanyak 1,400 siswa di wilayah itu. Dari daftar induk dari semua siswa yang mendaftarkan pada sekolah di distrik itu, administrator menyeleksi suatu sample dari 1,400 siswa (350 dari masing-masing siswa kelas 4, 9-12) yang ia rencanakan untuk mengirim suatu questionnaire pada para siswa tersebut yang menanyakan pendapatnya mengenai program baru tersebut.
● Kepala sekolah dari suatu sekolah dasar bermaksud menginvestigasi ke efektifan dari sebuah buku textbook baru tentang sejarah Amerika Serikat yang digunakan oleh beberapa orang guru di distriknya. Jumlah total seluruhnya adalah 22 orang guru yang menggunakan buku text tersebut, ia menyeleksi sebuah sample dari 6 orang guru. Ia merencanakan membandingkan prestasi siswa dari kelasnya guru yang 6 orang yang menggunakan buku textbook baru tersebut dengan 6 orang guru yang lain yang tidak menggunakan buku text sejarah yang baru itu.

DEFINISI POPULASI
Tugas pertama dalam penyeleksian suatu sample adalah mendefinisikan kepentingan populasi. Didalam kelompok apa, secara tepat, seorang peneliti berkepentingan? Untuk siapa ia menginginkan hasil studi untuk menggunakannya? Populasi, dengan kata lain, adalah sekelompok dari yang berkepentingan pada peneliti, kelompok untuk peneliti yang akan generalisasikan dari hasil studinya itu. Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh tentang populasi:

● Semua kepala sekolah di Amerika Serikat.
● Semua counselor di sekolah dasar di negara bagian California.
● Semua siswa yang bersekolah di Central SMA di Omaha, Nebraska, selama tahun
akademik 1987 – 1988.
● Semua siswa di kelas 3 –nya Ms Brown di Sekolah Dasar Wharton.

Contoh-contoh di atas mengungkapkan bahwa suatu populasi dapat menjadi berbagai macam ukuran dan itu akan mempunyai paling tidak satu (dan kadang-kadang beberapa) characteristic(s) yang rangkaiannya terputus dari suatu populasi lain. Perlu diperhatikan bahwa suatu populasi adalah selalu semua dari individu-individu yang memiliki suatu characteristic tertentu (atau serangkaian dari characteristics itu).
Pada penelitian pendidikan, populasi yang berkepentingan adalah biasanya sekelompok orang (para siswa, guru-guru, atau individu-individu lainnya) yang memiliki sifat atau characteristics tertentu. Tapi, dalam beberapa kasus, populasi di definisikan sebagai suatu kelompok dari kelas, sekolah, atau bahkan fasilitas-fasilitas. Sebagai contoh :

● Semua siswa di kelas 5 di Delaware (hypotesa mungkin bahwa kelas yang guru-gurunya memperlihatkan sejumlah besar dan bermacam-macam dari hasil-hasil produk siswa yang mempunyai prestasi yang lebih tinggi)
● Semua gedung olah raga (gymnasium) SMA di Nevada (hipotesa mungkin bahwa sekolah dengan fasilitas olah raga yang lebih baik menghasilkan lebih banyak team-team pemenang).

TARGET VERSUS POPULASI-POPULASI YANG DAPAT DIAKSES

Sayangnya, populasi aktual (disebut target population) yang untuk seorang peneliti akan benar-benar dapat men-generalisasikan jarang tersedia. Populasi yang seorang peneliti mampu generalisasikan, yang demikian itu, adalah accessible population (populasi yang dapat di akses). Yang disebut pertama adalah pilihannya ideal peneliti; yang berikutnya, adalah pilihan realistiknya. Perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut ini:
Research problem yang diinvestigasi : Pengaruh dari pembelajaran yang
menggunakan computer pada hasil reading di kelas satu dan kelas dua
di California.
Target population (Populasi target): Semua siswa kelas satu dan kelas dua di
California.
Accessible population (Populasi yang dapat diakses) : Semua siswa kelas satu dan kelas dua di sekolah dasar Laguna Salada distrik Pacifica, California.
Sample : Sepuluh percent dari siswa kelas satu dan kelas dua di distrik Laguna Salada di Pacifica California.

Research problem yang diinvestigasi : Tingkah laku dari guru-guru kelas lima pada pelatihan terhadap pengalaman mengajar pada para muridnya.
Target population (Populasi target): Semua siswa kelas lima yang mendaftar pada program pelatihan guru di Amerika Serikat.
Accessible population (Populasi yang dapat diakses) : Semua siswa kelas lima yang mendaftar pada program pelatihan guru di Universitas Negeri di New York.
Sample : Dua ratus siswa kelas lima di seleksi dari pendaftran itu pada program pelatihan guru di Universitas Negeri, New York.

Selanjutnya secara sempit para peneliti mendefinisikan populasi, lalu mereka memelihara tepat waktu, usaha, dan (kemungkinan) uang, tapi kemudian mereka membatasi pen-generalisasian itu. Hal yang penting bahwa para peneliti dalam menggambarkan populasi dan sample itu harus cukup terperinci agar individu yang berkepentingan dapat menentukan dapat tidaknya dari penemuan-penemuannya itu digunakan pada situasi mereka sendiri. Kegagalan untuk mendefinisikan secara terperinci kepentingan populasi, dan sample yang dipelajari, adalah satu dari sebagian besar kelemahan-kelemahan umum yang dipublikasikan pada laporan penelitian. Suatu hal yang penting untuk catatan bahwa sample aktual mungkin berbeda dari aslinya yang diseleksi karena beberapa subjek kemungkinan menolak untuk berpartisipasi, beberapa subjek mungkin drop out, data mungkin hilang, dan sebagainya. Kami ulang kembali, bahwa yang demikian itu, sangat penting untuk menggambarkan characteristic yang digunakan untuk mempelajari aktual sample di beberapa detail.

RANDOM VERSUS NONRANDOM SAMPLING
Berikut ini adalah suatu contoh dari masing-masing dua model utama dari sampling.
Random sampling: Dekan pada suatu fakultas keguruan dan ilmu pendidikan di suatu universitas Midwestern yang besar mengharapkan untuk menemukan bagaimana fakultasnya merasakan tentang cuti panjang sehingga meninggalkan keperluan-keperluan di universitas. Ia menempatkan semua 150 nama-nama dari fakultas di sebuah topi, mencampur mereka seluruhnya, dan kemudian menarik keluar nama-nama dari 25 orang/individu untuk di interview.*
Nonrandom sampling: Rektor dari universitas yang sama ingin mengetahui bagaimana juniornya pada fakultas merasakan tentang suatu kebijakan promosi yang baru-baru ini diperkenalkannya (dengan saran dari suatu komite fakultas). Ia menyeleksi suatu sample sebanyak 30 orang dari total fakultas 1,000 untuk ditanyakan atau diwawancarai. Lima anggota fakultas dari masing-masing 6 sekolah yang menyusun universitas dipilih atas dasar kriteria berikut ini: Mereka telah mengajar di universitas selama kurang dari lima tahun, mereka bukan atau tidak memiliki jabatan, mereka memiliki satu dari assosiasi kampus (perkumpulan kampus), dan mereka bukan anggota komite yang membantu draft rektor dalam penyusunan kebijakan baru.

Dari contoh pertama, 25 nama diseleksi dari sebuah topi sesudah semua nama-nama yang telah dikocok seluruhnya. Ini disebut random sampling karena setiap anggota dari populasi (150 fakultas di sekolah) agaknya telah memiliki kesempatan yang sama untuk diseleksi. Ada lebih banyak cara yang lebih canggih untuk penarikan cara random sampling, tapi mereka semua mempunyai maksud yang sama – untuk menyeleksi sebuah representative sample (sample yang mewakili) dari populasi itu (Gambar 6.1). Ide dasarnya adalah kelompok individu yang diseleksi sangat menyerupai keseluruhan populasi. Tentu saja, seseorang dapat tidak pernah yakin akan hal ini, tapi jika sample itu diseleksi secara random (acak) dan dengan cukup besar, seorang peneliti pasti akan memperoleh suatu gambaran yang akurat atau tepat dari kelompok yang lebih besar tersebut. Cara yang terbaik untuk menjamin hal itu adalah dengan melihat secara tidak bias memasukkan ke dalam proses seleksi itu – yaitu bahwa peneliti (atau faktor-faktor lainnya) tidak dapat secara sadar atau tidak sadar mempengaruhi yang memperoleh pilihan untuk menjadi sample. Selanjutnya kami akan menerangkan lebih banyak tentang bagaimana meminimalkan bias pada chapter ini.
Pada contoh yang kedua, rektor menginginkan keterwakilan (representativeness), tapi tidak sebanyak yang ia inginkan, untuk meyakinkannya terdapat macam tertentu dari fakultas di dalam sample-nya. Jadi, dia telah menstimulasi atau merangsang masing-masing individu yang diseleksi harus memiliki semua kriteria yang telah disebutkan. Setiap anggota dari populasi (seluruh fakultas dari universitas) tidak mempunyai kesempatan yang sama pada penyeleksian; Dalam kenyataannya, beberapa orang tidak memiliki kesempatan. Jadi, ini adalah contoh dari random sampling, kadang-kadang disebut purposive sampling. Berikut ini adalah contoh lainnya dari suatu random sample yang membedakan secara jelas dengan nonrandom sample.

Random: Seorang peneliti mengharapkan untuk melakukan suatu survey pada semua guru bidang studi sosial di suatu negara bagian midwestern untuk menentukan sikap mereka terhadap buku petunjuk baru mengenai pengajaran sejarah di SMP. Ada total 725 guru bidang studi sosial di negara bagian itu. Nama-nama dari guru-guru tersebut diperoleh dan di daftar secara alphabet. Peneliti kemudian menomori dan menamai daftar nama-nama guru itu mulai dari 001 sampai ke 725. Penggunaan table nomor-nomor random, yang dia temukan di dalam buku statistik, ia selanjutnya menyeleksi 100 guru untuk sample.
Nonrandom: Manager dari toko buku di kampus pada suatu universitas lokal ingin mengetahui bagaimana perasaan mahasiswa terhadap pelayanan yang diberikan oleh toko buku itu. Setiap hari selama dua minggu selama jam makan siang, ia menanyakan kepada setiap orang yang masuk ke toko bukunya untuk mengisi suatu questionnaire singkat yang telah ia siapkan yang kemudian ia masukan ke dalam kotak yang sudah disiapkannya dekat pintu masuk sebelum meninggalkan toko buku itu. Pada akhir periode selama dua minggu, ia telah memiliki total 235 questionnaire yang sudah diisi.

Pada contoh yang kedua, kita perhatikan bahwa semua para pengguna atau konsumen toko buku tidak mempunyai suatu kesempatan yang sama termasuk dalam sample, hanya yang berkunjung selama jam makan siang. Yaitu mengapa sample itu tidak random. Perhatikan pula bahwa beberapa mungkin tidak mengisi questionnaire tersebut.

Metode Random Sampling (Random Sampling Methods)

Sesudah membuat suatu keputusan untuk sample, para peneliti berusaha keras, pada sebagian besar contoh, untuk memperoleh suatu sample yang representative dari populasi yang berkepentingan – maksudnya mereka lebih menyukai memilih random sampling. Tiga cara yang paling umum untuk memperoleh type dari sample seperti itu adalah sample yang random sampling yang sederhana, yaitu stratified random sampling (random sampling berdasarkan tingkatan), dan cluster sampling (sampling kelompok). Suatu metoda yang kurang umum yaitu random sampling dua tahap.

RANDOM SAMPLING SEDERHANA (SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING)

Suatu simple random sampling adalah yang mana masing-masing dan setiap anggota dari suatu populasi mempunyai suatu kesempatan yang sama dan berdiri sendiri atau tidak bergantung dalam seleksi. Jika sample itu besar, maka metode itu adalah cara menemukan yang terbaik untuk memperoleh suatu sample yang representative dari suatu populasi yang berkepentingan. Coba perhatikan contohnya: Menemukan suatu populasi pada semua siswa kelas delapan di sekolah distrik Y. Bayangkan ada terdapat 500 siswa jumlahnya. Jika anda adalah diantara siswa-siswa itu, kesempatan anda untuk diseleksi adalah menjadi 1 : 500, tentu saja jika posedur sampling menggunakan random. Setiap orang akan memiliki kesempatan yang sama untuk diseleksi.
Lebih besar ukuran suatu random sample, maka akan lebih banyak mewakili populasi itu. Walaupun tidak ada jaminan akan keterwakilannya, tentu saja,

tampaknya lebih besar dengan random sample yang dibandingkan dengan metode lainnya. Setiap perbedaan antara sample dan populasi harus menjadi kecil dan tidak sistematik. Setiap perbedaan yang terjadi adalah hasil kesempatan, daripada bias pada bagian peneliti.
Kunci untuk memperoleh suatu random sample untuk menjamin bahwa masing-masing dan setiap anggota dari populasi mempunyai kesempatan dan ketidak bergantungan yang sama untuk diseleksi. Ini dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan apa yang disebut sebagai suatu table of random numbers (tabel bilangan acak) – suatu daftar bilangan yang sangat besar yang tidak berurutan atau berpola. Seperti daftar yang dapat ditemukan di bagian belakang dari kebanyakan buku statistik. Tabel 6.1 mengilustrasikan bagian dari suatu tabel khusus (typical table) pada bilangan random.
Untuk contoh, untuk memperoleh suatu sample 200 dari suatu populasi 2,000 individu, penggunaan tabel seperti itu, menyeleksi suatu kolom bilangan-bilangan, mulai dari tempat mana saja pada kolom, dan mulai membaca bilangan empat-digit. (Kenapa empat digit?, Karena bilangan akhirnya adalah 2,000, terdiri dari empat digit, dan kita harus selalu menggunakan bilangan digit yang sama pada setiap orang. Orang 1 akan diidentifikasi sebagai 0001; orang 2, sebagai 0002; orang 635, sebagai 0635; dan seterusnya.) Kemudian proses untuk mencatat 200 bilangan pertama pada kolom yang mempunyai nilai dari 2,000 atau kurang.
Sebagai contoh, kita ambil kolom pertama dari empat bilangan pada Tabel 6.1. Membaca hanya empat digit pertama, lihat bilangan pertama pada kolom: Bilangan itu adalah 0117, jadi bilangan 117 pada daftar individu dalam populasi itu akan diseleksi sebagai sample. Lihat bilangan kedua: Bilangan itu adalah 9123. Tidak terdapat 9123 di dalam populasi (karena yang ada hanya 2,000 individu pada seluruh populasi). Selanjutnya ke bilangan yang ketiga: yaitu 0864, sebab itu bilangan 864 pada daftar individu pada populasi akan dipilih. Bilangan ke empat yaitu 0593, jadi bilangan 593 dapat diseleksi. Bilangan ke lima adalah 6662. Tidak ada bilangan 6662 pada populasi, maka berlanjut pada bilangan berikutnya, dan seterusnya, sampai mencapai total 200 bilangan, masing-masing mewakili sebuah individu dalam populasi yang akan diseleksi sebagai sample.
Keuntungan dari random sampling adalah, jika cukup besar, maka ia akan menghasilkan suatu representative sample. Kerugiannya yang terbesar adalah tidak mudah melakukannya. Masing-masing dari setiap anggota populasi itu harus diidentifikasi. Pada sebagian besar kasus, kita harus mengetahui siapa 117 (untuk contoh) itu?
Selanjutnya, random sampling sederhana (simple random sampling) tidak digunakan jika para peneliti mengharapkan untuk menjamin bahwa subkelompok tertentu ada di dalam populasi itu dalam proporsi yang sama sebagaimana mereka dalam populasi. Untuk melakukan hal ini, para peneliti harus melakukan apa yang dikenal sebagai stratified sampling (sampling bertingkat).

STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING
Stratified Random Sampling adalah suatu proses di dalam sub kelompok tertentu, atau strata, yang diseleksi untuk sample dalam proporsi yang sama ketika mereka berada dalam populasi. Seandainya direktur penelitian pada suatu sekolah besar di suatu distrik ingin mengetahui respon atau tanggapan siswa terhadap buku teks pemerintah Amerika yang baru pada kelas dua belas yang dipertimbangkan untuk di adopsi oleh distrik itu. Kemudian Ia bermaksud untuk membandingkan prestasi siswa yang menggunakan buku teks yang baru itu dengan siswa yang menggunakan buku teks yang lebih traditional yang telah dibeli oleh distrik itu beberapa waku sebelumnya. Karena ia memiliki alasan untuk mempercayai bahwa gender adalah merupakan variable yang penting yang mungkin mempengaruhi hasil belajarnya, ia memutuskan untuk memastikan bahwa proporsi laki-laki dan perempuan di dalam belajar adalah sama di dalam populasi. Langkah-langkah dalam proses sampling itu adalah sebagai berikut:

1. Ia mengidentifikasi target (dan dapat diakses) populasi: semua 365 siswa kelas dua
belas yang mendaftar di sekolah negeri di distrik itu.
2. Ia menemukan bahwa terdapat 219 perempuan (60 persen) dan 146 laki-laki (40 persen) pada populasi itu. Ia memutuskan untuk mendapatkan suatu sample yang disusun 30 persen dari target populasi.
3. Penggunaan tabel dari bilangan random, ia kemudian secara random menyeleksi 30 persen dari masing-masing strata dari populasi, yang hasilnya dalam 66 perempuan (30 persen dari 219) dan 44 laki-laki (30 persen dari 146) siswa yang diseleksi dari subkelompok ini. Proporsi dari laki-laki dan perempuan adalah sama di kedua populasi dan sample – 40 dan 60 persen (gambar 6.2).

Keuntungan dari stratified random sampling yang meningkat kemungkinan dari keterwakilannya, khususnya jika sample tidak besar. Dia hampir menjamin bahwa kunci karakteristik dari individual di dalam populasi termasuk dalam proporsi yang sama di dalam sample. Kerugiannya adalah bahwa ia masih membutuhkan lebih banyak usaha pada bagian dari peneliti.

CLUSTER RANDOM SAMPLING
Pada keduanya baik random dan stratified random sampling, peneliti ingin meyakinkan bahwa macam dari individu tertentu adalah termasuk di dalam sample. Tapi ada waktu ketika ia tidak mungkin menyeleksi sebuah sample individu dari suatu populasi. Kadang-kadang, sebagai contoh, sebuah daftar dari semua anggota dari populasi yang berkepentingan tidak tersedia. Secara jelas, selanjutnya, simple random atau stratified random sampling tidak dapat digunakan. Sering, para peneliti tidak dapat menyeleksi sample dari individu karena masalah administrasi atau keterbatasan lainnya. Hal ini khususnya kenyataan di sekolah-sekolah. Contohnya, jika suatu target populasi semua siswa kelas sebelas didalam suatu distrik mendaftar pada pelajaran sejarah Amerika, hal itu akan menjadi tidak mungkin bahwa peneliti dapat mencabut secara random menyeleksi siswa untuk berpartisipasi dalam uji coba kurikulum. Bahkan jika ia dapat pun, waktu dan usaha yang dibutuhkan akan membuat seleksi akan menjadi sulit. Mengenai yang terbaik seorang peneliti dapat berharap untuk dapat mempelajari sejumlah kelas yang utuh, yaitu, kelas yang sudah ada. Seleksi kelompok, atau cluster, dari subjek pada individu yaitu dikenal sebagai cluster random sampling.
Mari kita pertimbangkan contoh lainnya pada cluster random sampling. Seorang perwira polisi di sebuah sekolah besar distrik, di suatu kota Pantai Timur Amerika (East Coast) ingin memperoleh beberapa ide bagaimana guru-guru di distrik itu merasakan tentang gaji yang diperolehnya. Terdapat 10,000 guru di semua sekolah dasar dan sekolah menengah pertama di distrik itu, dan ada 50 sekolah yang tersebar di seluruh wilayah. Perwira itu tidak mempunyai dana untuk mensurvey semua guru-guru di distrik itu, dan ia membutuhkan informasi tentang gaji dengan cepat. Daripada secara random ia menyeleksi suatu sample guru-guru dari tiap-tiap sekolah, oleh karena itu, ia memutuskan untuk menginterview semua guru-guru di sekolah yang diseleksi. Guru-guru pada masing-masing sekolah itu, kemudian, merupakan suatu cluster. Perwira itu menentukan suatu jumlah pada tiap-tiap sekolah dan kemudian menggunakan tabel bilangan random untuk menyeleksi 10 sekolah, dari pada melakukan perjalanan di semua sekolah di distrik itu. Jika para guru ini mewakili jumlah guru yang tersisa di distrik itu, maka selanjutnya perwira itu dibenarkan untuk menarik kesimpulan tentang perasaan seluruh populasi guru di distrik tersebut mengenai gaji yang diterimanya.

Namun, tentu saja kemungkinannya bahwa sample itu tidak representative. Karena para guru yang berasal sejumlah kecil sekolah yang ada di distrik itu tidak di interview semua, hal tersebut mungkin karena sekolah-sekolah itu berbeda dalam beberapa hal dibandingkan dengan sekolah lainnya, dengan demikian mempengaruhi gambaran mengenai gaji guru-guru yang ada di sekolah itu. Apabila lebih banyak sekolah yang diseleksi, lebih besar kemungkinan dari penemuan-penemuan itu dapat diterima dalam populasi guru-guru (Gambar 6.3).
Cluster random sampling adalah sama dengan simple random sampling kecuali bahwa daripada individualnya diseleksi secara random (yaitu, sampling unit adalah suatu kelompok dari pada suatu individual). Keuntungan dari cluster random sampling yaitu dapat digunakan ketika ia sulit atau tidak mungkin untuk menyeleksi suatu random sample dari individual-individual, dan lebih mudah melaksanakan di sekolah, dengan frekuensi yang tidak menyita banyak waktu. Kerugiannya yaitu, adanya kesempatan yang lebih besar untuk menyeleksi suatu sample yang tidak mewakili dari populasi itu.
Terdapat suatu kesalahan umum mengenai cluster random sampling yang banyak terjadi pada awal peneliti lakukan: seleksi secara random hanya satu cluster sebagai sebuah sample dan kemudian observasi dan interview semua individual dalam cluster itu. Bahkan jika terdapat sejumlah besar individual di dalam cluster, yaitu cluster yang telah diseleksi secara random, dibandingkan individuals, maka dari itu peneliti tidak berhak untuk menarik kesimpulan tentang populasi target pada individual seperti itu. Namun, beberapa peneliti menarik kesimpulan dengan cara seperti itu. Kita ulangi kembali, walaupun mereka tidak.
DUA-TAHAP RANDOM SAMPLING
Dua-tahap random sampling (two-stage random sampling) sering digunakan untuk mengkombinasikan cluster random sampling dengan individual random sampling. Cara seperti itu dilakukan dengan dua-tahap random sampling. Daripada menyeleksi secara random 100 siswa dari suatu populasi 3,000 siswa kelas sepuluh yang berlokasi di 100 kelas, peneliti mungkin akan memutuskan untuk menyeleksi 25 kelas secara random (acak) dari suatu populasi 100 kelas dan kemudian secara acak menyeleksi empat siswa dari setiap kelas. Hal ini tentu saja akan menghemat waktu dari pada mengunjungi lebih dari seratus kelas. Mengapa hal ini menjadi lebih baik dari pada menggunakan semua siswa pada empat kelas diseleksi secara random? Karena empat kelas akan menjadi terlalu sedikit untuk menjamin keterwakilannya, walaupun mereka diseleksi secara random.
Gambar 6.4 mengilustrasikan perbedaan metode random sampling yang telah kita diskusikan.

Metode Nonrandom Sampling (Nonrandom Sampling Methods)
SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING

Pada systematic sampling, setiap nth individual pada daftar populasi diseleksi sebagai masukan pada sample. Contohnya, pada suatu daftar populasi terdapat 5,000 nama, untuk menyeleksi suatu sample dari 500, seorang peneliti akan menyeleksi setiap nama ke sepuluh pada daftar sampai mencapai total 500 nama. Berikut ini contoh dari model sampling tersebut: Kepala sekolah pada suatu sekolah (kelas 6 – 8) dengan 1,000 siswa, ia ingin mengetahui bagaimana para siswa merasakan mengenai menu baru di cafeteria sekolah. Ia memperoleh daftar nama siswa secara alpabetikal semua siswa di sekolah dan menyeleksi setiap ke sepuluh siswa pada daftar tersebut untuk menjadi sample. Untuk melindungi terjadi bias, ia menaruh nomor 1 sampai dengan 10 ke dalam sebuah topi dan kemudian menarik satu keluar. Ia adalah 3. Kemudian ia (kepala sekolah) menyeleksi nomor siswa yang nomor 3, 13, 23, 33, 43, dan seterusnya sampai ia memperoleh suatu sample dari 100 siswa untuk di interview.
Metode di atas secara teknis dikenal sebagai systematic sampling dengan suatu random start (yang dimulai secara random). Selanjutnya, ada dua istilah yang sering digunakan berhubungan dengan systematic sampling. Sampling interval adalah jarak pada daftar diantara setiap individual yang diseleksi untuk sample. Pada contoh di atas intervalnya diberikan 10. Contoh untuk menentukannya digunakan rumus sederhana, yaitu :
Population size ___
Desired sample size

Sampling ratio adalah proporsi dari individual pada populasi yang diseleksi untuk sample. Pada contoh di atas , adalah 10, atau 10 persen. Secara sederhana untuk menentukan sampling ratio adalah:
Sample size ___
Population size

Ada bahaya pada systematic sampling yaitu kadang-kadang mengabaikan. Jika populasi telah di urut secara sistematis – yaitu, jika penyusunan individu pada daftar dalam beberapa macam pola yang secara kebetulan sama dengan sampling interval – secara jelas dapat menghasilkan sample bias. Ini kadang-kadang disebut periodicity. Seandainya pada siswa sekolah seperti yang dicontohkan di atas belum di daftar secara alphabet tapi guru kelas telah mendaftar sebelumnya dengan menggunakan grade point average (rata-rata nilai kelas) tinggi ke rendah. Artinya bahwa siswa yang lebih baik akan berada di atas pada daftar masing-masing kelas. Seandainya setiap kelas terdiri dari 30 orang siswa, kemudian jika kepala sekolah mulai menyeleksi setiap urutan siswa yang ke sepuluh dengan siswa pertama, kedua, atau ketiga pada daftar, maka sample akan terdiri dari siswa yang lebih baik nilainya di sekolah dari pada suatu perwakilan pada seluruh bagian siswa. (Apakah anda melihatnya kenapa? Karena setiap kelas, nilai siswa yang paling rendah akan menjadi urutan nomor antara 24 dan 30, dan mereka tidak akan pernah terpilih.)
Ketika merencanakan untuk menyeleksi suatu sample dari beberapa macam daftar, maka, peneliti harus hati-hati memeriksa daftar itu untuk meyakinkan tidak ada pola siklus. Jika daftar telah disusun dalam suatu urutan khusus, peneliti harus meyakinkan bahwa penyusunan tidak akan bias dan sample dalam beberapa hal dapat menghasilkan distorsi. Jika hal semacam itu terjadi maka tampaknya akan menjadi kasus, maka langkah-langkah tertentu perlu diambil untuk menjamin keterwakilannya – contohnya, seleksi individual dilakukan secara random dari setiap porsi siklus (cyclical portion). Pada kenyataannya, jika suatu daftar populasi diurut secara random, sebuah systematic sample yang dicabut dari daftar adalah suatu random sample.

CONVENIENCE SAMPLING
Banyak waktu yang sangat sulit (kadang-kadang bahkan tidak mungkin) untuk menyeleksi keduanya baik suatu random atau suatu systematic nonrandom sample. Dengan waktu yang seperti itu, seorang peneliti dapat menggunakan convenience sampling. Suatu convenience sample adalah sekelompok dari individual yang (secara convenient) tersedia untuk belajar (Gambar 6.5). Jadi, seorang peneliti mungkin dapat memutuskan untuk belajar dua tiga kelas pada sekolah dasar karena kepala sekolah meminta bantuan untuk mengevaluasi keefektifan dari sebuah buku text tentang spelling. Berikut ini ada beberapa contoh dari convenience samples :
● Untuk mengetahui bagaimana perasaan mahasiswa terhadap pelayanan makanan pada organisasi mahasiswa di universitas East Cost, manager berdiri di sebelah luar pintu utama dari cafeteria pada hari Senin pagi dan menginterview 50 mahasiswa pertama yang keluar dari cafeteria itu.
● Seorang counselor sebuah SMA menginterview semua siswa yang datang padanya untuk counseling tentang rencana karirnya.
● Seorang reporter berita untuk sebuah stasiun televisi lokal menanyai orang yang lewat di sudut jalan pusat kota mengenai pendapatnya tentang rencana pembangunan gedung olah raga (stadium) untuk baseball yang baru di daerah dekat suburb (pinggiran kota).
● Seorang professor pada suatu universitas membandingkan reaksi mahasiswa terhadap perbedaan dua buku text book pada statistik kelasnya.

Pada masing-masing contoh di atas, sekelompok tertentu dari orang-orang yang dipilih untuk dipelajari karena mereka berada di situ. Keuntungan nyata dari tipe ini yaitu sampling adalah convenience. Tapi secara jelas, ia memiliki kerugian yang besar pada samplenya yang tampak menjadi bias. Ambil contoh mengenai kasus reporter TV yang menginterview orang yang lewat di suatu sudut jalan pusat kota. Banyak kemungkinan para nara sumbernya yang ada bias. Pertama dari semua, tentu saja, setiap orang yang tidak ada di pusat kota tidak memiliki kesempatan untuk di interview. Kedua, para individu yang tidak ingin memberikan pendapatnya tidak di interview. Ketiga, orang-orang setuju dan bersedia di interview kemungkinannya individu yang mempunyai pendapat yang kuat dari pada yang lainnya tentang pembangunan gedung olah raga (stadium). Keempat, interview bergantung pada waktu pelaksanaannya, yaitu kemungkinan orang yang diinterview adalah orang-orang yang tidak mempunyai pekerjaan ataupun yang memiliki pekerjaan di luar kantor, dan selanjutnya.
Secara umum, convenience sample tidak dapat dipertimbangkan mewakili suatu populasi dan apabila mungkin harus dihindari. Sayangnya, kadang-kadang mereka hanya opsi dari seorang peneliti miliki. Pada kasus ini, peneliti harus sangat hati-hati dalam melibatkan informasi pada demografi dan characteristic lainnya dari sample yang dipelajari. Studi juga harus replicated, yaitu, mengulang, pada sejumlah nomor sample yang sama untuk menurunkan kemungkinan bahwa hasil yang diperoleh secara sederhana yaitu sekali jadi. Kita akan mendiskusikan replication (replikasi) ini secara lebih mendalam pada chapter berikut ini.

PURPOSIVE SAMPLING

Pada satu kesempatan, berdasarkan pengetahuan sebelumnya tentang populasi dan tujuan khusus dari penelitian, investigator menggunakan pertimbangan personal untuk menyeleksi suatu sample. Para peneliti berpendapat mereka dapat menggunakan pengetahuannya tentang populasi untuk mempertimbangkan apakah atau tidak suatu sample khusus akan menjadi mewakili. Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh:

● Seorang guru kelas delapan bidang studi ilmu sosial memilih dua orang siswa yang memiliki rata-rata nilai tertinggi di kelasnya, dua orang siswa yang memiliki rata-rata nilai tingkat menengah di kelasnya, dan dua orang siswa yang memiliki rata-rata nilai terendah di kelasnya, guru tersebut ingin mengetahui bagaimana suasana kelasnya sehari-hari termasuk diantaranya kegiatan diskusi yang terjadi. Sample yang sama pada saat lalu telah mewakili titik pandang dari seluruh kelas secara akurat sudah cukup .

● Seorang alumni suatu sekolah ingin mengetahui bagaimana seorang pensiunan yang berusia 65 tahun dan lebih merasakan “tahun emasnya (golden year)”. Ia telah diceritakan oleh salah satu orang profesornya, seorang akhli lanjut usia dan populasi lanjut usia, bahwa Persatuan Pensiunan Pekerja (Association of Retired Workers) lokal adalah sebuah perwakilan lintas batas dari orang-orang yang berusia 65 tahun atau lebih. Ia memutuskan untuk menginterview sebuah sample dari 50 orang dari anggota persatuan tersebut untuk memperoleh pandangannya.

Pada kedua contoh ini, informasi sebelumnya menuntun si peneliti untuk mempercayai bahwa sample yang diseleksi akan menjadi perwakilan dari populasi itu. Ada bentuk yang kedua dari purposive sampling yang mana ia tidak diharapkan bahwa orang yang dipilih adalah mereka sendiri sebagai perwakilan dari populasi. Sebagai contoh:
● Selama lima tahun yang lalu, ketua persatuan guru di suatu sekolah di distrik midwestern telah mewakili tiga perempat guru yang ada di distrik itu atas pandangan dari sebagian besar isu. Maka tahun ini, administrasi distrik itu memutuskan untuk menginterview (mewawancarai) hanya ketua-ketua dari persatuan guru tersebut saja dari pada menyeleksi suatu sample dari semua guru-guru di distrik itu.
● Seorang peneliti diminta untuk mengidentifikasi hirarki kekuasaan tidak resmi (the unofficial power hierarchy) di suatu SMA khusus. Ia memutuskan untuk menginterview kepala sekolah, perwakilan persatuan/organisasi, sekretaris kepala sekolah, dan penjaga sekolah karena ia mempunyai informasi sebelumnya yang menuntunnya untuk mempercayai mereka adalah orang yang memiliki informasi yang dia butuhkan.

Purposive sampling berbeda dari convenience sampling yaitu bahwa peniliti tidak secara sederhana mempelajari siapapun orang yang ada tetapi lebih baik menggunakan pertimbangan untuk menyeleksi suatu sample yang mereka percayai, berdasarkan informasi sebelumnya, yang akan menyediakan data yang mereka butuhkan. Kerugian utama dari purposive sampling adalah bahwa pertimbangan peneliti mungkin error (keliru) – dia mungkin tidak benar dalam penilaian (estimating) suatu sample keterwakilan atau keahlian mengenai informasi yang dibutuhkan. Pada contoh di atas yang kedua, ketua persatuan guru yang sekarang (yang sedang menjabat) mungkin mempunyai pandangan yang berbeda dari para anggotanya. Gambar 6.6 menggambarkan metode convenience, purposive, dan systematic sampling.

A. Review of Sampling Methods (Review dari Metode Sampling)

Mari kita ilustrasikan masing-masing metode sampling sebelumnya yang menggunakan hipotesa yang sama: “Para siswa dengan harga-diri rendah menunjukkan prestasi yang lebih rendah pada pelajaran di sekolah.”

Target population: Semua siswa kelas delapan di California.
Accessible population : Semua siswa kelas delapan di wilayah pantai San Francisco (tujuh kabupaten).
Feasible sample size : n = 200 – 250.
Simple random sampling: Identifikasi semua siswa kelas delapan di semua masyarakat dan sekolah swasta di tujuh karsidenan (diperkirakan jumlah siswa kelas delapan adalah = 9,000). Memberikan masing-masing siswa satu nomor (number), dan kemudian menggunakan sebuah tabel dari bilangan random untuk menyeleksi sebuah sample dari 200. Kesulitan disini adalah membutuhkan banyak waktu untuk mengidentifikasi setiap siswa kelas delapan di wilayah pantai dan mengontak (kemungkinannya) sekitar 200 sekolah yang berbeda agar alat administrasi untuk satu atau dua siswa di sekolah-sekolah itu.
Cluster random sampling: Mengidentifikasi semua publik dan siswa-siswa kelas delapan sekolah-sekolah swasta di karsidenan itu. Memberikan setiap sekolah sebuah nomor, dan kemudian secara random menyeleksi empat sekolah dan termasuk kelas delapan pada masing-masing sekolah. (Kami perkirakan 2 kelas per sekolah x 30 siswa per kelas x 4 sekolah = jumlah total adalah 240 siswa.) Cluster random sampling lebih banyak kemungkinanannya dari pada simple random sampling untuk melaksanakannya, tapi dia terbatas karena dari penggunaannya hanya empat sekolah, walaupun mereka tidak diseleksi secara random. Sebagai contoh, seleksi hanya empat sekolah mungkin meniadakan seleksi pada siswa-siswa sekolah swasta.
Stratified random sampling: Untuk memperoleh data pada nomor siswa-siswa kelas delapan pada public versus sekolah swasta dan menentukan proporsi dari tiap type (contoh, 80 persen public, 20 persen sekolah swasta.) Menentukan nomor dari tiap type untuk menjadi sample : public = 80 persen dari 200 = 160; swasta = 20 persen dari 200 = 40. Secara random menyeleksi sample dari 160 dan 40 siswa dari masing-masing subpopulasi public dan siswa-siswa sekolah swasta. Stratifikasi mungkin digunakan untuk menjamin bahwa sample mewakili variable lainnya juga. Kesulitan dengan metode ini adalah yaitu stratifikasi mengharuskan peneliti mengetahui proporsi pada setiap strata dari populasi, dan juga kesulitannya akan meningkat ketika lebih banyak variabel yang ditambahkan. Bayangkan menguji stratifikasi tidak hanya pada public-swasta variable tapi juga (sebagai contoh) pada siswa secara etnis, gender, dan status sosial ekonomi, dan pada gender, dan pengalaman guru.
Two-stage random sampling: Menyeleksi secara random 25 sekolah dari populasi yang dapat diterima (accessible population), dan kemudian secara random menyeleksi siswa-siswa kelas delapan dari setiap sekolah (n = 8 x 25 = 200). Metode ini lebih banyak kemungkinannya dari pada simple random sampling dan lebih mewakili (representative) dari pada cluster sampling. Ia mungkin menjadi pilihan yang terbaik pada contoh ini, tapi ia masih membutuhkan ijin dari 25 sekolah dan para nara sumber untuk mengumpulkan masing-masing data.
Convenience Sampling: Menyeleksi semua siswa kelas delapan di empat sekolah yang mana peneliti memiliki access (lagi, kami perkirakan dua kelas dari 30 siswa per sekolah, jadi n = 30 x 4 x 2 = 240). Metode ini menghindari generalisasi diluar empat sekolah itu, kecuali ada argumentasi yang kuat dengan bantuan data yang menunjang dapat dibuat untuk kesamaannya pada seluruh kelompok yang dapat diterima oleh sekolah.
Purposive sampling: Menyeleksi delapan sekolah dari seluruh tujuh kabupaten (county) berdasarkan data demographic menunjukkan bahwa mereka mewakili dari semua kelas delapan. Khususnya perhatian harus ditunjukkan pada harga-diri dan score hasil belajar (prestasi belajar). Masalahnya adalah bahwa data seperti itu tak mungkin tersedia, dan pada setiap kasus, tidak dapat menghapus kemungkinan perbedaan antara sample dan populasi atas variable lainnya – seperti sikap guru dan nara sumber yang tersedia.
Systematic sampling: Menyeleksi setiap ke 45 siswa dari suatu daftar alphabet untuk setiap sekolah.
200 students in sample ___ = 1__
9,000 students in population = 45

Metode ini adalah hampir se-convenient simple random sampling dan kemungkinan menghasilkan sample bias, mulai dari nama ke 45 pada setiap sekolah yaitu cocok menjadi ketiga yang dilalui pada alphabet (ingat diperkirakan ada 60 siswa kelas delapan pada setiap sekolah), termasuk di dalamnya etnik atau bias budaya.

Ukuran Sample (Sample Size)
Menarik kesimpulan tentang suatu populasi sesudah mempelajari suatu sample tidak akan pernah sama sekali memuaskan, karena peneliti tidak akan pernah yakin bahwa samplenya mewakili dari populasi. Beberapa perbedaan antara sample dan populasi membatasi untuk ada, tapi jika sample diseleksi secara random dan ukurannya cukup, perbedaan ini mungkin secara relative insignificant (relatif tidak berarti) dan incidental. Pertanyaan yang tersisa, karena itu, seperti untuk apa suatu cukup itu, atau memadai, ukuran untuk sample.
Sayangnya, tidak ada jawaban yang menjelaskan atau menjernihkan pertanyaan itu. Seandainya populasi target terdiri dari 1,000 siswa kelas delapan yang diberikan oleh sekolah pada distrik itu. Beberapa ukuran sample, tentu saja, benar-benar terlalu kecil. Contohnya sample dengan 1 atau 2 atau 3 individual, adalah terlalu kecil yang kemungkinannya mereka tidak dapat mewakili. Kemungkinan setiap sample yang kurang dari 20 sampai 30 individu adalah terlalu kecil, karena hanya akan 2 atau 3 persen saja dari populasi. Sebaliknya, suatu sample akan menjadi terlalu besar, diberikan sejumlah waktu dan usaha peneliti itu harus menaruh kedalam memperolehnya. Contohnya, suatu sample dari 250 atau lebih kemungkinannya akan menjadi kurang cukup besar, karena hanya merupakan seperempat dari populasi. Tapi bagaimana dengan 50 atau 100 sample? Apakah jumlah itu cukup besar? Apakah 200 sample menjadi terlalu besar? Pada titik itu, secara pasti, apakah suatu sample berhenti menjadi terlalu kecil dan menjadi cukup besar? Jawaban yang terbaik adalah suatu sample harus menjadi sebesar dari peneliti yang dapat diperoleh dengan suatu pengeluaran waktu, dan energy yang layak. Hal itu, tentu saja, tidak banyak membantu seperti yang diharapkan, tapi itu sebagai saran bahwa peneliti harus berusaha memperoleh sample sebesar yang mereka butuhkan.
Ada beberapa garis pedoman bahwa kami akan memberikan saran dengan hal yang berkaitan dengan bilangan minimum dari subjek yang dibutuhkan. Untuk studi deskriptif, kami berpendapat suatu sample dengan suatu bilangan minimum 100 adalah penting. Untuk studi correlational, suatu sample paling tidak 50 dianggap perlu untuk menyusun keberadaan hubungan. Untuk percobaan dan studi perbandingan sebab dan akibat, kami menyarankan minimum 30 individual perkelompok, walaupun kadang-kadang studi uji coba dengan hanya 15 individual di setiap kelompok dapat dipertahankan jika mereka mengontrol dengan ketat; studi yang menggunakan hanya dengan 15 subjek perkelompok kemungkinannya harus menjadi replicated, namun demikian, sebelum terlalu banyak dibuat pada setiap penemuan.

External Validity: Generalizing from a Sample

Seperti yang dutunjukkan pada awal chapter ini, para peneliti men-generalisasikan atau menyamaratakan ketika mereka menggunakan penemuan itu dari suatu studi khusus bagi orang atau setting yang berjalan diluar terutama orang atau setting yang digunakan di dalam studi. Seluruh gagasan dari ilmu pengetahuan dibangun atas ide dari generalizing. Setiap ilmu pengetahuan mencari untuk menemukan prinsip-prinsip dasar atau peraturan atau hokum-hukum yang dapat digunakan pada suatu variasi yang besar pada suatu situasi dan, pada kasus ilmu-ilmu sosial, untuk memperbesar jumlah orang, sebagian besar peneliti mengharapkan untuk men-generalisasikan penemuannya untuk menyesuaikan atau menyediakan populasi. Tapi kapan generalizing dijamin? Ketika peneliti dapat mengatakan dengan percaya diri apa yang mereka telah pelajari tentang suatu sample adalah juga benar pada populasi? Kedua baik sample alam dan kondisi lingkungan – setting – didalam yang mana suatu studi terjadi harus dipertimbangkan mengenai kemampuan generalisasi. Perluasan pada hasil studi dapat di generalisasikan untuk menentukan validitas external (the external validity) dari studi itu.

POPULATION GENERALIZABILITY (KEMAMPUAN GENERALISASI POPULASI)
Kemampuan generalisasi populasi menunjuk kepada tingkat suatu sample yang mewakili populasi yang berkepentingan. Jika hasil studi hanya menggunakan kelompok yang sedang dipelajari dan jika kelompok itu sangat kecil atau secara sempit di definisikan, kegunaan itu dari setiap penemuan itu menjadi terbatas. Maka dari itu mengapa berusaha untuk memperoleh suatu sample yang representative begitu penting. Karena pelaksanaan suatu studi membutuhkan pertimbangan sejumlah waktu, energy, dan (frequently) uang, para peneliti biasanya menginginkan hasil dari investigasi menjadi seluas mungkin dapat diterima.
Ketika kita berbicara tentang keterwakilan (representativeness), bagaimanapun, kita sedang mereferensi hanya pada isi, atau relevant, characteristics dari suatu populasi. Apa yang dimaksud dengan relevant? Hanya characteristics yang menunjuk kepada kemungkinan menjadi faktor kontribusi pada setiap hasil yang diperoleh. Sebagai contoh, jika seorang peneliti hendak menyeleksi suatu sample dari kelas satu – dan kelas dua untuk mempelajari pengaruh metode reading pada prestasi siswa, seperti characteristics tinggi, warna mata, atau kemampuan melompat akan menjadi pertimbangan yang tidak relevan – yaitu, kita tidak mengharapkan setiap variasi padanya untuk memiliki suatu pengaruh pada bagaimana mudahnya seorang anak belajar membaca, dan karena dari itu kita tidak akan menjadi sangat perhatian jika characteristic itu tidak cukup terwakili di dalam sample. Characteristic lainnya, seperti, usia, gender, atau ketajaman penglihatan, sebaliknya, mungkin (secara logika) mempunyai suatu pengaruh dan karena itu harus diwakili dengan sesuai di dalam sample.
Kapanpun purposive atau convenience sample digunakan, generalisasi dibuat lebih masuk akal jika data dihadirkan untuk menunjukkan bahwa sample itu representative pada maksud populasi atau paling tidak kira-kira relevan dengan variable. Prosedur ini, bagaimanapun juga, tidak pernah menjamin keterwakilan pada semua relevan variable.
Satu aspek dari kemampuan generalisasi (generalizability) itu sering mengabaikan di dalam “metode” atau “perlakuan (treatment)” studi yang menyinggung pada guru, counselor, administrator, atau lainnya yang mengurus berbagai macam treatment. Kita harus ingat bahwa studi seperti itu melibatkan tidak hanya suatu sample dari siswa, client, atau penerima treatmen lainnya tapi juga suatu sample itu yang melaksanakan berbagai macam treatment. Jadi, suatu studi yang secara random menyeleksi siswa tapi bukan hanya guru saja yang berhak men-generalisasi hasil populasi dari siswa – jika diajar oleh guru-guru yang sama. Untuk men-generalisasi pada guru lainnya, sample dari guru juga harus diseleksi secara random dan harus menjadi cukup besar.
Akhirnya, kita harus ingat bahwa sample itu di dalam setiap studi adalah kelompok tentang data siapa yang sebenarnya diperoleh. Rancangan sampling yang terbaik adalah tidak tidak bernilai jika informasi hilang pada porsi yang cukup besar dari initial sample. Hal ini sering sulit melakukannya, terutama dengan questionnaire-type survey study, tapi hasil cukup berharga disbanding dengan waktu dan energy yang dikeluarkan. Sayangnya tidak ada garis pedoman yang jelas, berapa banyak subjek yang dapat hilang sebelum keterwakilan benar-benar rusak. Setiap peneliti yang kehilangan lebih dari 10 persen dari seleksi sample aslinya akan disarankan mengakui adanya keterbatasan kualitas dari kesimpulnnya.
Apakah peneliti selalu ingin men-generalisasi? Hanya waktu peneliti tidak tertarik di dalam generalisasi diluar batas-batas studi tertentu ketika hasil dari investigasi menarik hanya digunakan oleh kelompok tertentu dari orang-orang dalam waktu tertentu pula, dan dimana semua anggota kelompok itu termasuk di dalam studi. Sebagai contoh mungkin menjadi opini sebuah sekolah dasar pada issue-issue khusus seperti apakah menjalankan atau tidak suatu program baru matematika. Itu mungkin menjadi nilai pada fakultas itu untuk membuat keputusan atau program planning, tapi tidak untuk siapapun juga.

KAPAN RANDOM SAMPLING TIDAK FEASIBLE

Seperti telah kami tunjukkan, kadang-kadang ia tidak feasible (mungkin) atau bahkan mungkin untuk memperoleh suatu random sample. Ketika ini adalah kasus, peneliti harus menggambarkan sample seluas mungkin (terperinci, untuk contoh, usia, gender, ethnic, dan status sosial ekonomi) agar menarik yang lainnya agar dapat menilai untuk mereka sendiri tingkat yang mana setiap penemuan yang digunakan, dan untuk siapa dan dimana. Ini jelas merupakan suatu prosedur perbandingan yang rendah pada random sampling, tapi kadang-kadang itu adalah hanya satu alternative yang dimiliki.
Ada suatu kemungkinan lainnya ketika suatu random sample tidak mungkin untuk diperoleh: Itu disebut replication (peniruan). Para peneliti mengulang studi yang menggunakan perbedaan kelompok atau subjek dan perbedaan situasi. Jika studi ini diulang beberapa kali, penggunaan perbedaan kelompok dari subjek dan dibawah perbedaan kondisi dari geografi, level sosial ekonomi, kemampuan, dan seterusnya, dan jika hasil yang diperoleh secara esensial sama di setiap kasus, seorang peneliti mungkin memiliki confidence tambahan tentang generalisasi penemuan itu.
Pada sebagian besar studi yang telah dilakukan di dalam pendidikan, random sample belum digunakan. Hal itu dikarenakan dua sebab. Pertama, para peneliti pendidikan mungkin tidak waspada pada bahaya yang terlibat dalam proses generalisasi ketika seorang tidak memiliki random sample. Kedua, pada banyak studi secara sederhana tidak mungkin bagi seorang peneliti untuk menginvestasikan waktunya, uang, atau sumber-sumber lainnya yang perlu hanya untuk memperoleh suatu random sample. Akibatnya studi tertentu dapat diterima oleh kelompok yang lebih besar, kemudian, peneliti harus berargumentasi dengan meyakinkan sample digunakan, bahkan tidak dipilih secara random, dan pada kenyataannya mewakili dari target populasi. Bagaimanapun, hal itu adalah sulit, dan selalu subjek berlawanan dengan argument.

ECOLOGICAL GENERALIZABILITY
Ecological Generalizability (Kemampuan Generalisasi Lingkungan) menunjukkan kepada derajat yang mana hasil dari studi dapat diperluas menjadi setting atau kondisi lainnya. Para peneliti harus membuat jelas alam dan kondisi lingkungan – setting – dibawah suatu studi yang terjadi. Kondisi ini harus menjadi sama yaitu semua penting menghormati pada setiap situasi yang baru yang mana peneliti hendak menyatakan menggunakan penemuannya. Contohnya, tidak dapat dibiarkan untuk men-generalisasi dari studi atas pengaruh program baru reading pada kelas tiga di sekolah pada system pengajaran matematika, bahkan untuk siswa-siswa itu di dalam system tersebut. Hasil penelitian dari lingkungan sekolah urban dan mungkin tidak menggunakan suburban (wilayah pinggiran) atau sekolah di lingkungan pedusunan; hasil yang diperoleh dengan transparencies (ketransparanan) mungkin tidak menggunakan textbook itu. Apakah benar memegang satu subjek, atau dengan material tertentu, atau di bawah kondisi tertentu, atau pada waktu tertentu mungkin tidak men-generalisasi subjek lainnya, material, kondisi, atau waktu.
Suatu contoh dari generalisasi lingkungan yang tidak sesuai terjadi di dalam suatu studi yang menemukan suatu metode tertentu dari pembelajaran yang menggunakan hasil reading map di dalam transfer yang lebih besar untuk interpretasi general map pada kelas lima sekolah dasar di beberapa sekolah. Para peneliti menyetujui rekomendasi bahwa metode pembelajaran digunakan di wilayah lainnya, seperti melibatkan matematika dan ilmu pengetahuan alam, melewati perbedaan-perbedaan isi, material dan keterampilan, di dalam penambahan yang memungkinkan perebedaan-perbedaan nara sumber, pengalaman guru, dan sebagainya. Generalisasi lingkungan yang tidak layak seperti itu menyisakan kutuk pada sebagian besar penelitian.

Sayangnya, penerapan teknik yang canggih pada random sampling mungkin hampir tidak pernah dengan menghormati generalisasi lingkungan. Sementara itu seorang peneliti dapat mengidentifikasi populasi dari pola-pola organisasi, material, kondisi kelas, dan selanjutnya dan kemudian secara random menyeleksi nomor yang cocok pada kombinasi dari semua kemungkinan kombinasi, logistik yang melakukan begitu menakjubkan pikiran. Maka dari itu, para peneliti harus berhati-hati dengan hasil generalisasi dari setiap suatu studi. Hanya ketika hasil yang telah ditunjukkan menjadi sama melalui replikasi melintasi kondisi lingkungan yang khusus yang dapat kita generalisasi dengan cara melintasi kondisi itu.

Language that is studied synchronically is “studied as a complete system at a given point in time” (The AB axis).
Language studied diachronically is “studied in its historical development” (The CD axis).
Example of Change of English based on Periodical Time.
1. at Old English (a variant of West Germanic
was spoken by Angles, Saxon, and Jutes. )
5th century AD.
2. Middle English Period.(Norman conquest)
11th century AD.
3. The Great Vowel Shift. (A major change in
the pronunciation of vowels marks
the transition from Middle English to
Modern English during the 15th and
16th centuries. )
4. Modern English Period (Renaissance)
5. 20th Century English (Standard English)

Diagram change of English based on
the periodical time.

Excerpt of English Language
from Middle Age

Conclusion:
 Language is necessarily, and essentially, dynamic. It is a process, not a state, change over time, and periodical time to accommodate the needs of its users.

Apakah suatu sample itu?
Samples dan populasi.
Defining the Population.
Target versus Accessible
Populations.
Random Versus Non-
random Sampling.

Random Sampling Methods

Simple Random Sampling.
Stratified Random
Sampling.
Cluster Random Sampling.
Two-Stage Random Sampling.

Nonrandom Sampling Methods
Systematic Sampling.
Convenience Sampling.
Purposive Sampling.

A Review of Sampling Methods
Sample Size
External Validity: Generalizing from a Sample
Population Generalizability.
When Random Sampling is
Not Feasible.
Ecological Generalizability.

Posted by: erienkoma | December 11, 2010

Homoeducandum & Homoeducandus

In Education there are two groups of human beings or homomeganthropus: Homoeducandum and Homoeducandus. These two groups human beings come from the sentence of Greek.
Homoeducandum is a person in growth and development from the fetus period up to 21 years old; exception among them are married. Fetus (Latin, Greek) means embryo or in Indonesia Janin.

1. Homoeducandum
Homoeducandum is a person in growth and development. He needs the helping from others. According to Elizabeth B. Hurlock in her book “The Developmental Psychology”, that the growth and development of Homoeducandum begins from fetus and is well known as embryo. At the below we study the growth and development of Homoeducandum or man as a whole.
1) The conception period : up to 200 days in mother’s stomach. As long as 280 days all human in the world their life begin at mother’s stomach namely in capsule. Embro come from egg and spermatozoide meet in mother’s uterus (rahim). The growth and development of this embryo begins from blood ( 3 months), flesh ( 3 months and complete embryo 3 months and 10 days). This embryo in condition sleeping and his food from his mother by means of blood streaming. If mother in her pregnant eats complete nutrition so the embryo is growth and development perfectly.

2) The Neonatal or New Born up 15 days : Orok (Indonesia)
If the neonatal or orok is healthy and there is no extraordinary he cries. The baby cries according to medical doctor it is the sign healthy and sound and no blind, no doubt. According to philosopher of Bolk, the baby is fear to face the future of his life because of as long as in mother’s stomach he is in condition asleep and he can’t do anything. But after bearing he feels ill and his future is dark, therefore he cries loudly in order that his another takes pity on him, and then put into mother’s uterus. In Islam the first stimulus stimulate the baby is the sound of Adzan (boy) or Iqamah (girl).

3) The Period : Forth night up to 1,5 years.
In the rest of life baby, he needs all his primary needs from his parents including to do member two, drink, eat, sleep, speak, to take a bath, good service and merciful and pay attention. All his skill he gets from imitating includes to gesture performance and his personality. According to psychology and sociology, the developing of baby by imitating or imitation.

4) The Child : 1,5 – 7 years
As long as child period his growth and development are perfect like human. In this period he learns from his parents and he begins to be homoeducandum after 4 years old he enters to play group then to kindergarten where he is seven years old he enters to elementary school.

5) School Period : 7 – 13 years
This period is becoming formal educandum, because he is just getting formal education at elementary school or primary school. At this learns many kinds skill science, according to curriculum and guide books from government.

6) The Puberty Period : 13 – 15 years
Puberty comes from the word of pubes means begins to big child. At this body just grown some or many kinds of feathers among them hairs become fully grows, the leg’s feathers, moustache, beard, the armpit feathers and between of two tights. The girls begins menstruation and boy begins to dream and wet (and also girl). He begins attract to another gender or heterosexual interest. He likes to make up, gets full dress and contrast and show his/her performance or behavior.
7) The Youth Period : 15 – 18 years
8) The Last Youth Period : 18 – 21 years
9) Adult Period : 21 – to die.

7. youth period 15-18 years
This period the youth has the growth and development is better than before because of the development of his mind and consciousness to his own as young people. He begins to pay attention to his development like the surrounding.
8. Last youth period 18-21 years
In this period the youth his development begins to subjective, means he pays attention to himself, therefore sometimes he is egoistic or he is important to himself, without attention to the surrounding.
9. Adult period 21 above
This period in his growth has been complete like others adult, but in his minds he has two attitudes namely subjective and objective. These attitudes depend on the surrounding situation and his emotions or his private condition. Example: when he is happy or good condition his attitude to be objective, he can understand to others and he can receive the condition. But when his condition is not good or emotion or angry to family, his attitude to surrounding to be subjective, like on the bus. He doesn’t want to give facilitation to the old adult or he pretend not pay attention to other and so on. Everybody is different his character and it depends to the situation, condition and his mind (psycho)
2. HOMO EDUCANDUS
Homo educandus is a person has been to adult or has been married or to parents or to be teacher because his job at school or after graduation from educational faculty or university.
And now why homo educandus must educate?
1. He feels responsibility for the young generation as the continuous generation.
2. All religions especially Islam teaches to its believers to be good and to obey to God’s command because Allah says:
God will hang up the believers’ belief in God and good performance (beramal shaleh).
3. Homo Educandum has God’s trust to apply to his life and then here after God will ask him.
4. Homo educandus feels that he is responsibility to young generation for his good future.
5. Homo educandus as teacher or parents or leader anticipate the good future the young generation.
6. Homo educandus enlarge the academic horizon of young generation
7. Homo educandus is conscious that the society is always change.
8. Because of the education and the technology never stops development.
9. The future is in the present, so homo educandus ought to educate homo educandum

Posted by: erienkoma | December 11, 2010

The Foundations of Education

1. The Foundations of Education are:
When we watch the education since human beings exists in the world up to now man never stops and never loses from education since he was born up to aging and to pass away. According to the study which act and to do by experts and educationists in the world, that the foundations of educations consists of four as follow; a) Philosophy; b) History; c) Human Needs; d) Religion.
a) Philosophy, According to study of educational process from ancient up to present, the education begins in Greek the first time, namely the period of philosophy and it begin at the Greek philosophy as Plato, Aristoteles, Thales, and Maximenes. Philosophy comes from the word of philein (verb) and Sophia (adjective) of Greek. Philein means to fond of talking, like to think. Sophia means virtue and wisdom or some is best or good, based on the terminology, so philosophy means is like to think, to fond of talking the virtue and wisdom and to be happy good performance before public. According to Plato that in the world there is Nouz, namely the greatest power, more than power of the King of Greek. Based on his beliefs he was put into jail by the Greek King and sentence to death by drinking poison. His students asked him to pull his think, in order to release from jail, but he refused to pull out, at the end of law in that since he was sentenced to death by drinking poison in jail. After many years what he thought it was true, she in the world there is the great Creator, who created the world there is the Great Creator, who created the world with its content, including human. In Islam and Christ were called God or Allah SWT. The ideas of Plato in education we can find in his book ‘Republic’. In this book according to Plato that the quarreling, war, killing and enemy when in the world or society there are the distributions of job or profession by expert in his field.
The profession of Plato’s idea are : (1) Artisans, (2) Warriors, and (3) Philosophers.

(1) ARTISANS. Artisans are the group of expert man who have capable preparing and create the primary needs of human being in the world. Among them are peasants, sailors, workers, labors, engineers and so on. They are educated as long as 10 years as artisans. At the end of study, they are examined who has the best, he can be continued his study to be warriors. If we compare with Indonesian Education is greet the same with National Exam or Ujian Nasional every year to select the best students to continue their study to the best in insliprite or best school.

(2) WARRIORS. Warriors are the guardians of mother land, who are expert to save territory, to guard mother land from enemy outside or inside like terrorists (nowadays), corruptions, or bandits, so motherland is save and some and government and people are save in daily life and motherland is constant to be peace. They are educated 10 years, and at the end of academic years, they are tested who are getting the best score or examination they have good chance to continue they study to the philosophers as 10 years again.

(3) PHILOSOPHERS. Philosophers are the experts in governments, the thinkers, the managers, and the leaders, to manage the Artisans and Warriors. Philosophers are the best citizens who are able to make mother land prosperity, or Baldattun Thoyibun Wa Robbun Ghofur or Gemah Ripah Lowjinawi, Aman dan tentrem.
According to Plato’s Educational idea, there is no interference to another job or position, there is no coup d’etat. Everybody works according to his education. All men are Good Citizen. The idea of Plato is frequently called the Theory of Plato Idea, because it is very difficult to realize in society or in the world. The Plato’s idea now is called Job Profession by Code Ethics. Teachers and Educators are Philosophers.

b) History, If we study the history of human kind by means of sociology, anthropology, philosophy, and technology, human beings never lost from education. There is one well-known book with title “Education from century to another century”. We find that man in the rest of his life always gets education. It is gotten from parents milieu, teachers, nature or experience, like the well known proverb: “Experience is the best teacher”. According to Soekarno: “The great nation learns from history”, because it contents all human need including education. Education can anticipate the future. The future is in the present, if someone to be good for the future he ought learns all from many persons, of course from school by means of teachers. In the history education Adam the first human beings in the world after God created him, then he was touched by Allah will be manager or caliph on the world, like we find in Holly Al Qur’an surat Al-Alaq as below: “In the name of Allah, the beneficent, the merciful.
“Read, the name of thy Lord who createth”
“Createth man from a clot”
“Read and it is thy Lord the most beautiful who teachteth man that which he knew not. Then Allah makes the fit and proper test in front of Satan and Angel”. According to the history Plate teaches people or someone by dialogue. By dialogue the person answers himself what Plato asks him by this method, Plato makes his people clever and know something.

c) Human needs, as we know that all human beings when they were born brought nothing with them, exception “Cry”. Cry the sign of no blind and dumb. The first stimulus comes to the human being is bound, in Islam called azan (boy) or iqomat (girl). By this stimulus caught and keep forever. According to biology that the brain consists of 20 milyard cells, every cell has own function for human self. According to the educational theory that human beings bring with him potentiality, talents, gifted or fitrah or the potentiality from he/his parents or ancestor. Why are the human beings educated? Because of the age human beings are long, so in the of their life ought to understand all on the world. He can understand all by education or learning. Learning by teacher, or by experience like the well known proverb: “Experience is the best teacher”. The other reasons why education is important for man, because the socious or society creature, they are interaction to the other in daily life where they are, an every can’t get his needs but he needs other persons to help him. For example, A fish can’t come self to his plate to eat. Many people help him to present that fish among them are sailor, labor, merchant, driver, engineer, and teacher, so on. Because of this need all people ought to educate all thing, more and more the society is always changing, and never stop changing, and man must be adapted to the change by education.
d) Religion, every religion teaches the believers by the holly book, like Zabur (psalms Mazmur), Injil (Gospel) and Al Qur’an. In those holly Book or Kitab content the subject for the believers in order that they obey to God and save in earth and save the hereafter. Religion leads the holder to the straight path in order they to the best the God Creatures and make the best interaction one to the other in their life. If we read all the holly book by means Holly Al Qur’an and we are taught that all ancient people got God’s learning or education from Allah, then by preaching of pastor, ulama, pedanda (Hindu Bali), brahmana or religious teachers at mosque, cathedral, church, klenteng, and pura.

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